The Lord’s Prayer as a Guide for Daily Living











A Project in Partial Requirements of

RW827 Version 20131216





Trinity Theological Seminary


Rick Mangrum

Student #2131234000



March 13, 2017









Copyright © 2017 Rick Mangrum



All Rights Reserved.  Trinity Theological Seminary has permission to reproduce and disseminate this document in any form by any means for purposes chosen by the Seminary, including, without limitation, preservation and instruction.

















Bibliographic Method

Major Writing Project


Rick Mangrum


Read and Approved by:





Chairman Dissertation Committee















This work is dedicated to all those who have supported, inspired and enabled me in my journey.  My wife, Maureen supports me in everything I do.  My daughters Laura and Mary inspired me to do my best.  My mother and father, Paul and Sue Neal enabled me from an early age to do and be my best.  I am truly blessed and hope others will be blessed by this amateur attempt to better understand one of the greatest teachings in human history.




















VITA                                                                                                                          9

  1. The Introduction                                     10

The Focus                                                                                            12

The Limits                                                                                           13

The Focus                                                                                            16

The Assumptions                                                                                17

The Summary                                                                                      18


  1. “Pray, then, in this way:”                                     19

Key Word Analysis                                                                            19

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              21

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      27

Chapter Summary                                                                               32


  • “Our Father, who is in Heaven”                                                 33

Key Word Analysis                                                                            33

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              35

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      41

Chapter Summary                                                                               43






  1. “Hallowed by Your name.”                                     44

Key Word Analysis                                                                        44

Historical Theology Analysis                                                          46

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                  48

Chapter Summary                                                                           49


  1. “Your kingdom come.”             50

Key Word Analysis                                                                        50

Historical Theology Analysis                                                          54

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                  58

Chapter Summary                                                                           59

  1. “Your will be done,” 60

Key Word Analysis                                                                        60

Historical Theology Analysis                                                          63

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                  67

Chapter Summary                                                                           68


  • “On Earth as it is in Heaven.” 70

Key Word Analysis                                                                        70

Historical Theology Analysis                                                          73

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                  75

Chapter Summary                                                                           77





  • “Give us this day our daily bread.” 79

Key Word Analysis                                                                            79

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              83

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      89

Chapter Summary                                                                               91


  1. “And forgive us our debts,”                                                                    93

Key Word Analysis                                                                            93

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              95

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      99

Chapter Summary                                                                               101


  1. “as we also have forgiven our debtors.,” 103

Key Word Analysis                                                                            103

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              106

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      107

Chapter Summary                                                                               110


  1. “And do not lead us into temptation,” 112

Key Word Analysis                                                                            112

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              115

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      118

Chapter Summary                                                                               119





  • “but deliver us from evil.” 122

Key Word Analysis                                                                            122

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              126

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      128

Chapter Summary                                                                               131


  • “For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever.” 132

Key Word Analysis                                                                            132

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              139

Contemporary Theology Analysis                                                      142

Chapter Summary                                                                               144


  • “Amen.” 147

Key Word Analysis                                                                            147

Historical Theology Analysis                                                              149

Contemporary Theology Analysis and Summary                               150


  1. Conclusion: Summary of Application to Christian Life                          152


Bibliography                                                                                                               157

Endnotes                                                                                                                     164










Birthplace: Cape Girardeau, MO, 1960



B.A.  Speech, Southeast Missouri State University, 1982

M.A. Theology, Liberty University, 2013



Vice President Merchandising, Walmart Corporation, 1997 – Present

Sr. Buyer, Venture Stores/May Company, 1987 – 1997

Manager, Kmart Corporation, 1982 – 1987



First Baptist Church, Bentonville, AR, 1997 – Present

Crestwood Baptist Church, Crestwood, MO, 1987 – 1997

Homewood Baptist Church, Homewood, MO, 1984 – 1987

Singing Men of Arkansas, 2013 – Present



Theology/Seminary Blog,







 The Introduction

The Bible is accepted as the God inspired, inerrant handbook of life on Earth by most Christians.[1]  Portions of the scriptures seem clear and direct in their instructions to believers on how to live their time on Earth and prepare for the eternal afterlife.  Other portions are more indirect in their language and message.  The believer seeking the true will of God in their life works to understand both.  That understanding is one of the most significant challenges of the Christian life.  The goal of all theology is to get “face to face with God.”[2]

The pursuit of a godly life, to live in the way God intended is a “theme of Christian history.”[3]  Working to get to the deepest possible level of understanding of God’s son and his time on Earth is a logical approach.  Jesus walked the Earth closer to God than anyone.  His life was a blueprint, a map to walking with God.  Some of the map is direct and easy to follow.  Some may be more subtle and indirect.

In Matthew 6:9-13, the passage commonly known as The Lord’s Prayer, perhaps one of the best known of all biblical passages, Jesus tells his disciples how to  pray to their heavenly father.  This work will present the idea of applying this passage not just to prayer, but for the challenge of successfully living daily as a Christian.  The Lord’s Prayer is not just about prayer, but also a “summary of Jesus’ priorities” for Christian living.[4] The prayer of Jesus is intended to show “the terms of our existence as we stand under God” as well as show how to express ourselves to our heavenly Father.[5]  It is a guide for communicating to God through our lives and actions, not just our words.

The development of this conclusion has occurred over many years in the life of the writer.  Growing up in a Christian and church-going home, the Lord’s Prayer was learned at an early age.  The most intriguing words of the prayer to the writer have always been “give us this day” in verse 11 of Matthew 6.  If Jesus was the perfect son of God and his every moment and every word was perfect and intentional, these words were chosen for a purpose.  We were not told to pray for everything we would need for all of our lives, but for just one day.  God is not limited to just one day, yet this is the direction Jesus gives his disciples. There is something here bigger and more important than just these words. In the divinely inspired words of God, Jesus gives his disciples a guide to the proper perspective of their daily focus.

If the life of Jesus was the intentional gift of God to man, it is logical to believe that each action and every word of Jesus while on Earth was just as intentional.  God leaves nothing to chance.  There are no unimportant words or events. God knows the number of the hairs on our heads.  (Luke 12:7)  Every word of Jesus was likely directed by God the Father.  (John 12:49)

We are directed to “pray without ceasing” in the New Testament. (1 Thessalonians 5:17)  So then to live in God’s way is to pray continuously to the Father.  Jesus’ instruction on prayer was also an instruction on life.






The Focus

The Matthew 6 passage commonly called The Lord’s Prayer is a guide for Christian living.  This is supported by the language of the passage as well as other biblical passages.  The behavior suggested to believers is seen in the historical-earthly life of Christ.  The suggested behavior is also supported by more contemporary theologians and has direct implication to modern, everyday living. This work will examine the passage and these factors and present how a clear path for modern believers is unfolded in these words of Jesus.

Two themes will be presented here. The first is that the passage was intended as a guide for more than just prayer. The second is that each portion of the passage has a separate and intentional purpose.  The first will be illustrated by the entirety of the work.  The second will be demonstrated by the individual chapter presented on each portion. The words used by Jesus, the historical context and the contemporary context of each portion will support the central theme of The Prayer as a guide not just to prayer but to living everyday.












The Limits

It is the intent of the writer to present support for the central idea without bias and as objectively as possible.  The reader will be convinced by the evidence presented!  The etymological, historical and theological data will be presented in a straight forward manner.  Since all writers have some bias on any subject, failure to be objective in some portions may occur but will not be done intentionally.

This work is limited to the version of the prayer found in Matthew.  This passage will be examined in detail, but questions as to the differences in the Matthew and Luke passages will not be covered.  There are many grammatical and theoretical differences in the two versions.[6] Different versions of the same incident in the life of Jesus are not unique in the Bible.[7]  There is much to be learned in the study of the comparisons of these versions.  That is not the focus of this work.

While a study of each word of the key passage will be presented, this is not intended as an etymological study, or a complete analysis of each word’s development or meaning.[8] The analysis of each word will be presented to show the support of the original language of the thesis question, not to present an exhaustive study of the original language.

The historical significance and perspective of the original language will be presented as is necessary to support the thesis.  The key focus of this work is to show that the passage is appropriate as more than just a prayer guide and the study of each word will be presented in the depth necessary for this purpose, but not as complete as is possible.


The work is limited to the modern text as presented in the New American Standard Bible, The MacArthur Study Bible, Matthew 6:9-13.[9]

“Pray, then in this way:

Our Father who is in heaven,

Hallowed be Your name.

Your kingdom come,

Your will be done,

On earth as it is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread.

And forgive us our debts,

As we also have forgiven our debtors.

And do not lead us into temptation,

But deliver us from evil.

For Yours is the kingdom and the power

and the glory forever.



This work is not bound by any of the traditional divisions of this passage. There are several that have been commonly accepted.  One often studied is Martin Luther’s Seven Petitions.[10]  With an introduction and conclusion, Luther divides the passage nine ways.  Some theologians use as little as three, others as many as five.[11]  While these have all been considered in this work, a simple approach will be presented. The passage will be divided by the number of phrases or complete thoughts presented in the chosen translation.  The analysis comes in the form of how any listener or reader would  present the passage to themselves or to others. Any similarity to the divisions used by other works is coincidental.

The goal of this work is to explore, to analyze and to discover all possible meanings of the focus passage with regard to their application to daily living based on the words of Jesus.  Each portion of the passage will be examined in a consistent manner to allow the best possible evaluation of the support of the thesis.  To see the words through the eyes of Jesus is the goal, although that certainly sounds impossible for any human.  It was likely his intent that we try to do so when he presented these ideas to his disciples.

The goal of the writer is that all terminology used in the work be commonly understood or fully defined and explained as it is presented.  There is to be no theology-speak that the average believer would not understand.  Clear communication in easily understood terminology is the goal.




The Process

The process of completing this work has used the bibliographic research model, with information gathered from published sources.  A wide variety of sources has been used, published over a period of years, ranging from 1895 to 2014.  The sources are from a range of secular writers to graduate students to world renowned theologians.

The design is to present each portion of the central passage in a consistent manner.  After an initial introduction of the overall material in Chapter One, Chapter Two will begin the examination of the each portion. Each will be presented in four parts.

A brief word study of each portion will first be presented.  The meaning of each word in the original language will be examined. The root and common uses for the words will be presented.  The historical and biblical context of each word will be examined.  This will transition to the examination of each portion from the perspective of historical theology, the study of the meaning of a passage at a given time.[12]

The historical theology of each portion of the passage will include both biblical and secular references.  The goal is to put into the context of that time the meaning of each portion.  The key question is that of what the disciples likely heard when Jesus spoke these words.  Modern believers may hear them differently today, but first we must understand how the original audience of Mathew’s Gospel heard the passages.  This will transition to an examination of the contemporary theological implications of each portion.

The contemporary theological implications will be presented and are the beginning of understanding the potential implications of each portion of the text to modern Christian living.  Contemporary theology is the study of passages using modern, contemporary perspective.[13] Understanding the perspective of modern theologians regarding these passages is a key question to be answered. The point of view of different modern theologians will presented for each passage.  A comparison of those perspectives to historical theological points of view will also be examined.

With these steps completed, a proposal of the application of each passage to modern Christian living will be presented.  This is the key focus of the work for each portion of the passage. Clear application of the summary of each passage is one key goal of the work.  Applying the central thesis of the complete passage as a guide for Christian living, along with application of each portion of the passage, combine to create the total objective of the work.

The Assumptions

In any writing assumptions are made by the writer.  The first assumption of this work is that the Bible is the inerrant word of God, “supremely authoritative for belief and content”, given to the original writers by God and coming through the years largely unaltered by the many translations and versions available today.[14]  The original focus passage came from “the mouth of the Lord” and still exists today in the original form.[15] The primary source and chosen translation for biblical quotes will be NASB, The MacArthur Study Bible.[16]

The second assumption is that the quest for a life closer to God, based on the words of Jesus, is a worthy one. This is not simply writing on an academic topic but work done to improve the life of both the writer and the reader.  It is assumed that this is valuable goal.  “For centuries men and women have desired a deeper walk with God.”[17]  This work continues that journey.

The third assumption is that the final product of this work will be applied to the life of the reader.  Built on the first two assumptions, with no expected application, the work is an unnecessary expenditure of resources.  To seek a closer walk with the creator is the assumed journey of both the writer and each reader.

The Summary

Understanding the words of Jesus is the mission of every believer. We will all be judged by how we use and react to his words.[18]  The passage examined here gives Jesus’ prayer guide for his disciples.  God commands us to pray many times in scripture.[19] Prayer may be thoughts or words.  It is also be the “contention in which faith lives.”[20]  It may be not just words but also the “purpose/function” of our communication with God. [21]

The conclusion is that the passage commonly called the Lord’s Prayer in Matthew is not just a template or pattern of words to be used in our relationship with God through prayer, but also a summary of Jesus’ priorities in the believer’s place in the kingdom of God.  It states the “terms of our existence” with God.[22]  Prayer is an expression of our worship and is presented by Jesus as the “center focus of the Christian life” by both his words and his life examples.[23] Prayer is not just the pursuit of God through thoughts or words but by the actions of our lives.  Using the model given to us directly by Jesus is one path to the successful conclusion of the journey. Jesus taught us to both pray and live in The Prayer.












Key Word Analysis

οὕτως  οὖν  προσεύχεσθε

The initial words of Jesus in this passage are an introduction to the passage.  There are three primary word/phrases:  pray, then, and in-this-way.  Each of these Greek word/phrases was commonly used in the New Testament of the NASB in many places.  Pray/ προσεύχεσθε  is used here as a verb.  It is used ninety times in eighty two verses in the New Testament.[24]

In this passage, Pray is a very general word meaning “to pray.”  It is the same word used in passages about both the life of Jesus and Paul, as well as the community church.  Jesus used this form of the word to show his personal prayers in the morning (Mark 1:35), in the evening (Matthew 14:23), on a mountain (Mark 6:36), as he was baptized (Luke 3:21), in the wilderness (Luke 5:16), and just before his death (Mark 14:32) as well as many other times.  Prayer was clearly part of the regular activities of his life.

This same form of the word was used by Paul in his advice to believers to “pray without ceasing.”  (1 Thessalonians 5:17)  In his writings Paul encouraged believers to follow the example of Jesus in exercising constant prayer.   “Without ceasing/ ἀδιαλείπτως” is a phrase used only in the New Testament in reference to prayer.[25]  This encouragement to engage in this activity without stopping or continuously, is not used to describe any other activity suggested to followers of Christ.  The use of these words, along with the multiple examples of prayer in the life of Jesus make a powerful case for prayer as not just a communication activity, but as a way of life or way of living.

“Then/οὖν” is a common particle used four hundred and ninety nine times in the New Testament to connect parts of a phrase.  It is defined as one thing following another.  It indicates that Jesus not only suggested to his followers to pray, but would then also give them instruction on the proper methods.

“In this way/ οὕτω(ς)”  is also a common phrase in both Old and New Testament, occurring nineteen times in total.  “Way” in this form is extremely common, occurring almost six hundred times in both the Old and New Testaments.  Its use is very consistent with Jesus’ choice of common, easily understood common words to introduce this passage.

The combination of these three words from Jesus, indicate that his desire is that this activity become a common part of the life of a believer.  Pray without ceasing and do so in this common manner.  Make this activity common in your daily life.












Historical Theology Analysis

The setting of the Sermon on the Mount and the events leading up to it help set the stage for the historical theology of this passage.  The SOTM was the first instance of specific teaching by Jesus.  Prior to this passage, his teachings had been short or very general.

Jesus’ arrival had been well announced.  John the Baptist had paved the way declaring that the “kingdom was at hand”.  (Matthew 3:2)  John’s arrival had also been preannounced by Isaiah.  “A voice is calling, clear the way for the Lord in the wilderness.”  (Isaiah 40:3)  The ultimate announcement of the teachings of Jesus went back to 700 years prior to his birth.[26]

In Mathew 4:17-19 is found the first instance of Jesus’ teaching.  His words were simple and direct, to “repent, for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand”.  The only other example of his teaching prior to the SOTM was also in Mathew.  In 4:23 there is a general reference to his “teaching in the synagogue and proclaiming the gospel”.  His words that began the SOTM  in chapter 5 were very specific and detailed.  This marked a change in his ministry.

Jews in the time of Jesus were anxious for him to lead.  But he would not lead as they expected.  They looked for a King, a political or even military leader to lead them again to greatness.  Jews desired this leadership so deeply that they appeared to wish to force him into that role.  John records that “they were intending to come and take Him by force to make Him king.” (John 6:15)  This came after his SOTM but shows their desire for his leadership.  They were listening intently to his first words.  Soon they would begin to learn that “My kingdom is not of this realm”.  (John 18:29)

“Large crowds” were there to hear him.  (Matthew 4:25)  These two words tell a story about the teachings of Jesus all by themselves.  The word used for crowds here, ochlos, indicates a “casual collection of people.”[27] This word is used to describe common, working people. This was not a sampling of the population, rich and poor, but a group of working class men and women.  The word used for large is a common one of that day that translates as “many” and was used over five hundred times in the New Testament.[28]  These two words together were used by Matthew times to describe those who came to hear Jesus.[29] Many common, working people came to hear Jesus.  That was his target audience for his first teachings and for many of his teachings to come.

Jesus’ teachings in the SOTM were different than those a Jew would have heard in the temple.  There was no repetition of the Torah or the Law of Moses.  His teachings began here to go beyond the law into the heart.  He began to set the stage for Christian behavior and a believer’s true relationship with the Father.  The Lord’s Prayer portion of the SOTM deals directly with that relationship, using both prayer and prayer related behavior to help develop that relationship.

Jesus positioned himself to be seen and heard as “he went up on the mountain and after “He sat down”  he began to teach.  (Matthew 5:1)  He clearly knew that they were there to listen and that his words would have impact.  As Jesus spoke these words, he did so from the perspective of a typical Jewish upbringing. He would have studied prayer in the context of the Old Testament and that would have had impact on his teachings on prayer. As an adult, he had “a biblical mind-set that immeasurable affected His spiritual life.”[30] The historical record of Old Testament prayer is long and varied.

Here are some examples of prayer in the Old Testament that Jesus may have studied or

worked to understand as a young man growing up:

Abraham’s prayer for an heir.  (Genesis 15:2-3)

Abraham’s prayer for Ishmael.  (Genesis 7:17:18)

Abraham’s prayer for Sodom.  (Genesis 18:23-32)

Eliezer’s prayer for Issac.  (Genesis 24:12-14)

Jacob’s prayer for a blessing.  (Genesis 8: 20-22)

Jacob’s prayer for deliverance.  (Genesis 32:9-12)

Moses’ prayer for Aaron.  (Exodus 4:14-17)

Moses’ prayer for Israel.  (Exodus 5:22-23)

Moses’ Prayer for Israel.  (Exodus 32:31-32)

Moses’ prayer for Canaan.  (Exodus 33:12-13)

Aaron’s prayer for a blessing.  (Numbers 6:27)

Moses’ prayer for his journey.  (Numbers 10:35-36)

Moses’ prayer for his burden.  (Numbers 11:10-15)

Moses’ prayer for his people. (Numbers 11:21-22)

Moses’ prayer for Miriam.  (Numbers 12:13)

Moses’ prayer to spare Israel.  (Numbers 14:13-19)

Moses’ prayer for judgment.  (Numbers 16:15)

Israel’s prayer for forgiveness.  (Numbers 21:7)

Moses’ prayer for a new leader.  (Numbers 27: 16-17)

Moses’ prayer to go into Canaan. (Deuteronomy 3:24-25)

Moses’ prayer for Israel.  (Deuteronomy 9:26-29)

Joshua’s complaint. (Joshua 7:10-15)

Joshua’s prayer for a command. (Jusoua 10:12)

Israel’s prayer for guidance.  (Judges 1:1)

Gideon’s prayer for revelation.  (Judges 6:13)

Israel’s prayer for deliverance.  (Judges 10:10)

Jephthah’s prayer for vicgtory. (Judges 11:30-31)

Manoah’s prayer for directions.  (Judges 13:8)

Samson’s prayer for victory.  (Judges 16:28)

Israel’s prayer for guidance. (Judges 20:23)

Israel’s prayer for guidance.  (Judges 20:28)

Israel’s prayer for revelation.  (Judges 21:3)

Hannah’s prayer for a son. (1 Samuel 1:11)

Hannah’s prayer of gratitude.  (1 Samuel 2:1-10)

Saul’s prayer for guidance. (1 Samuel 14:37)

David’s prayer for guidance. (1 Samuel 23:2)

David’s prayer for revelation.  (1 Samuel 23:10)

David’s prayer for revelation.  (1 Samuel 30:8)

David’s prayer for revelation.  (2 Samuel 2:1)

David’s prayer for revelation.  (2 Samuel 5:19)

David’s prayer for fulfillment.  (2 Samuel 7:18-19)

David’s prayer for forgiveness.  (2 Samuel 24:10)

Solomon’s prayer for wisdom.  (1 Kings 3:6-9)

Solomon’s prayer of dedication.  (1 Kings 8:23-53)

Elijah’s prayer for resurrection.  (1 Kings 17:21-21)

Elijah’s prayer for fire from Heaven.  (1 Kings 18:36-37)

Elijah’ prayer for death.  (1 Kings 19:4)

Elisha’s prayer for his servant.  (2 Kings 6:17)

Hezekiah’s prayer for deliverance.  (2 Kings 19:15-16)

Hezekiah’s prayer for a longer life.  (2 Kings 20:3)

Jabez’s prayer for land.  (1 Chronicles 4:10)

David’s prayer for Solomon.  (1 Chronicles 14:11)

Asa’s prayer for victory. (2 Chronicles 14:11)

Jehoshaphat’s prayer for victory. (2 Chronicles 20:6-12)

Ezra’s prayer of thanksgiving.  (Ezra 7:27-28)

Ezra’s prayer for forgiveness.  (Ezra 9:5-15)

Nehemiah’s prayer of confession.  (Nehemiah 1:5-11)

Nehemiah’s prayer for judgment.  (Nehemiah 4:1-6)

Nehemiah’s prayer for help. (Nehemiah 6:9)

Nehemiah’s prayer for help. (Nehemiah 6:14)

Nehemiah’s prayer for help.  (Nehemiah 6:14)

Israel’s prayer of confession.  (Nehemiah 9:5-38)

Nehemiah’s prayer for blessing. (Nehemiah 13:14)

Nehemiah’s prayer for blessing.  (Nehemiah 13:22)

Nehemiah’s prayer for judgment.  (Nehemiah 13:29)

Nehemiah’s prayer for blessing.  (Nehemiah 13:31)

Job’s prayer of thanksgiving.  (Job 1:20-22)

Job’s prayer of complaint.  (Job 7:17-21)

Job’s prayer for relief.  (Job 9:25-10:22)

Job’s prayer for life.  (Job 14:13-22)

Job’s prayer for a fair trial.  (Job 23:3-5)

Job’s prayer of confession.  (Job 40:3-5)

Job’s prayer of repentance.  (Job 42:1-6)

David’s prayers in Psalm, over fifty examples.

Unknown psalmist’s prayers.  (Psalms 124-138)

Asaph’s prayers to God.  (Psalms 74, 79, 82, 83)

Moses’ prayers.  (Psalms 90)

Ethan’s prayers for rememberance.  (Psalms 89)

Isaiah’s prayer for cleansing.  (Isiah 6:5)

Hezekiah’s prayer for deliverance.  (Isaiah 37:16-20)

Hezekiah’s prayer for healing.  (Isaiah 38:3)

Jeremiah’s prayer of confession.  (Jeremiah 1:6)

Jeremiah’s prayer accusing God.  (Jeremiah 4:10)

Jeremiah’s prayer for judgment.  (Jeremiah 10:23-25)

Jeremiah’s prayer to question God.  (Jeremiah 12:1-4)

Jeremiah’s prayer for help for Judah.  (Jeremiah 14:7-9)

Jeremiah’s prayer for Judah.  (Jeremiah 14:20-22)

Jeremiah’s prayer for judgment. (Jeremiah 15:15-18)

Jeremiah’s prayer about captivity.  (Jeremiah 32:17-25)

Jeremiah’s prayer for judgment.  (Lamentations 1:20-22)

Jeremiah’s prayer for consideration. (Lamentations 2:20-22)

Jeremiah’s prayer for judgment. (Lamentations 3:55-66)

Jeremiah’s prayer for Judah.  (Lamentations 5)

Ezekiel’s prayer of protest.  (Ezekiel 4:14)

Ezekiel’s prayer for the remnant. (Ezekiel 9:8)

Daniel’s prayer for forgiveness.  (Daniel 9:1-19)

Daniel’s prayer for revelation.  (Daniel 12:8)

Amos’s prayer for forgiveness.  (Amos 7:2)

Amos prayer for help.  (Amos 7:5)

Sailor’s prayer for mercy. (Jonah 1:14)

Jonah’s prayer for deliverance.  (Jonah 2:1-9)

Jonah’s prayer for death. (Jonah 4:2-3)

Habakkuk’s prayer for action.  (Habakkuk 1:1-5)

Habakkuk’s prayer for judgment. (Habakkuk 1:12-17)

Habakkuk’s prayer for revival.  (Habakkuk 3:2-19)


In nearly two hundred examples of Old Testament prayer, Jesus and the Jews of his day had examples of many of the most revered Old Testament leaders as well as some unknown persons praying for almost every imaginable result. Prayers for relief from torment, judgment, forgiveness, help and action are just a few of the subjects.  There is a long and significant historical foundation for prayer in the life of a believer. There are few significant Old Testament leaders who are not cited in prayer in scripture. Prayer as a normal part of the life of the believer is solidly established.

Prayer was not only normal but required in the homes of religious Jews in the days of Jesus.[31]  The Shema passage from Deuteronomy 6:4 was likely recited several times a day in the house of Joseph and Mary as a prayer and declaration of their faith in the Father.[32] Jesus would have seen prayer as not just a form of communication or declaration but as a normal, routine part of daily living.

The results of the word analysis of this passage along with the clear historical significance of prayer both strongly support the idea that Jesus was not only beginning a passage with instructions on how to pray but also how to live the believer’s life. His words indicate prayer as a needed common Christian practice and the history up to that time also supports the central thesis.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

There are two applications for the contemporary believer from this passage. The first is to pray.  The second is to pray “in this way”.  Believers are told what to do and how to do it.

The life of Jesus is an indication of the need for prayer in the life of a believer, in the life of one dedicated to living like Christ.  Understanding the common activities of Jesus in his time on Earth is a clear pattern for Christian living.  Jesus told his believers to pray not just in his words but in the activities of his life. The life of Jesus is not only the life of a savior, but a teacher.[33]  His intentions were not only stated by his words, but by his actions.[34]

Here are New Testament examples of prayer in the life of Jesus:

Speaking to Jewish leaders. (Matthew 11:25-26)

Prior to walking on the water. (Matthew 14:22)

Before feeding the 4000. (Matthew 15:36)

For little children. (Matthew 19:13-15)

At the Lord’s Supper.  (Mathew 26:26)

In the Garden of Gethsemane.  (Matthew 26:36-46)

On the cross.  (Matthew 27:46)

While healing. (Mark 14:22)

At his baptism. (Luke 3:21-22)

After healing. (Luke 5:15)

Before choosing his disciples.  (Luke 6:12-13)

Before speaking with Peter. (Luke 9:18)

At the Transfiguration. (Luke 9:28-29)

With the seventy. (Luke 10:21)

Before teaching the Lord’s Prayer in Luke.  (Luke 11:1)

For Peter. (Luke 22:31-32)

On the cross.  (Luke 23:34)

Just before dying.  (Luke 23:46)

After his resurrection.  (Luke 24:30)

For his disciples, just before his Ascension.  (Luke 24:50-53)

Before feeding the 5000. (John 6:11)

Before raising Lazarus.  (John 11:41-42)

To glorify the name. (John 12:27-28)

For himself and his disciples.  (John 17:1-26)

The prayers of Jesus can also be seen by their general circumstances. In these

circumstances he presented himself as an “inspiring example for believers.”[35]  His demonstrated the “consistency of his prayer life” to his disciples though his entire ministry.[36]  He prayed consistently in many different circumstances.

He prayed alone.  (Matthew 14:23)

He prayed in public. (John 11:41-42)

He prayed before meals.  (Matthew 26:26)

He prayed with his face on the ground. (Matthew 26:39)

He prayed before decisions.  (Luke 6:12-13)

He prayed before healing.  (Mark 7:34-35)

He prayed after healing. (Luke 5:16)

He prayed to do his Father’s will.  (Matthew 26:36-44)

He prayed for himself.  (John 17)

He prayed early in the morning. (Mark 1:35)

He prayed for others. (Matthew 19:13)

He prayed with others (Luke 9:28)

He prayed alone.  (Luke 5:16)

He prayed in the wilderness.  (Luke 5:12)

He prayed on a regular basis.  (Luke 5:16)

He prayed with persistence.  (Luke 18:1)

He prayed for the will of God.  (Matthew 26:39


The life of Jesus taught his believers to pray, both those in his lifetime and to those who follow him today.  He prayed for many different things at many different times.  He prayed continuously throughout his life.  He prayed in many different circumstances. One cannot use the life of Jesus as an example for living without including prayer.  His life is was a living example of “pray without ceasing.”  (1 Thessalonians 5:17)  The contemporary applications are clear and easy to follow. Pray alone and with others. Pray for yourself and for others.  Pray regularly and never give up.  Believers ought to pray before, during or after any circumstance thought to be significant.

Jesus’ disciples followed his example.  While the New Testament records many instances of Jesus praying in everyday life as already illustrated, most of the disciple’s prayers were because of specific events or needs.

Disciples as a group to be delivered from drowning.  (Matthew 8:25)

Peter prayed to walk on the water.  (Mathew 14:28)

Peter prayed for deliverance from drowning.  (Mathew 14:30)

Disciples as a group prayed for a replacement for Judas. (Acts 1:24-25)

Peter prayed for the healing of a lame man.  (Acts 3:6)

Disciples as a group prayer for power.  (Acts 4:24-30)

Stephen prayed for his enemies.  (Acts 7:59-60)

Paul prayed for instruction.  (Acts 9:5-6)

Peter prayed for Tabitha to be resurrected.  (Acts 9:40)

Paul prayed in thanksgiving for followers.  (Romans 1:8)

John prayed for his readers.  (3 John 2)

John prayer for Jesus’ second coming.  (Revelations 22:20


Praying in the time of need seems to be a pattern in the life of the disciples as documented in the New Testament.  How much like them we are today!  There is also at least one example of Peter praying for an event to occur then praying for deliverance from his answered prayer.

Many others who were unnamed specifically also prayed in New Testament passages.  They saw the example of Jesus and followed it.  They prayed in times of need and in times of worship.

A leper prayed for healing. (Matthew 8:2)

A Centurion prayed for his servant.  (Matthew 8:6-9)

Demons prayed for freedom.  (Matthew 8:29-31)

A ruler prayed for healing.  (Matthew 9:18)

A woman prayed for healing. (Matthew 9:21)

Blind men prayed for healing.  (Matthew 9:27)

A woman prayed for her daughter to be healed.  (Mathew 15:22-27)

A man prayed for his son to be healed.  (Matthew 17:15-16)

A women prayed for her two sons.  (Mathew 20:21)

Blind men prayed for healing.  (Matthew 20:30-33)

A demon prayed for freedom.  (Mark 1:23-24)

Simeon prayed to bless Jesus.  (Luke 2:29-32)

A rich man prayed from Hell.  (Luke 16:24-31)

Lepers prayed for healing.  (Luke 17:13)

A Publican prayed for mercy.  (Luke 18:13)

A nobleman prayed for his child’s healing. (John 4:49)

People prayed for living bread.  (John 6:34)

Elders prayed in worship.  (Revelation 4:11)

Angels prayed in worship.  (Revelation 5:12)

Creatures prayed in worship. (Revelation 5:13)

Martyrs prayed for vengeance.  (Revelation 6:10)

A multitude prayed in worship.  (Revelation 7:10)

Angels prayed in worship.  (Revelation 7:12)

Saints prayed in worship.  (Revelation 19:1-6)

In the remainder of the Matthew passage, Jesus would go on to fulfill the phrase “in this way”.  He had presented the idea of prayer in his words and life and would now present to his disciples a pattern for successful prayer.  This introductory phrase sets the stage for the great ideas and words to come.  These words would be studied and repeated by millions of followers for thousands of years after the day this passage was recorded.

Chapter Summary

The introductory words of this passage, “pray then in this way” illustrate both the wisdom soon to come as well as the perspective if Jesus in regards to prayer. Prayer for all issues, in any circumstances and done consistently were characteristics of his life he sought to influence his followers to copy with this passage. Jesus knew that “the bending of our lives toward God does not come naturally” and that his followers would need effective tools and methods to achieve that goal.[37]  Contemporary Christians have those same needs.












“Our Father who is in heaven,”


Key Word Analysis

ὑμεῖς πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

The beginning of the prayer, similar to a conversation or a written letter, announces the intended audience.  The very first word is powerful and sets the stage for things to come.  Our/ ἐγώ is used forty times in the New Testament as a possessive pronoun.[38]  It is used equally as either “my” or “our”, showing individual or plural ownership of a person, concept or object.  In this case, as with all of the first person pronouns of the Lord’s Prayer, it is presented as a plural first person pronoun.[39]

Our Father

Our daily bread

Our debts and our debtors

Lead us not into temptation

Deliver us from evil


While prayer is often thought of as an individual activity, Jesus presents it from the first word as an expression of our belonging to a bigger group or community.  All those who chose to recite this prayer or live out its intentions do so as individuals belonging to a larger group of believers, a family.  “We” are his children.  He is “our” Father.  He seeks to know not just one of us but all of us.

This first word also shows that this prayer is not for just anyone, but limited to those who identify themselves as believers or disciples of God the Father.[40]  The life sought by the speaker or fulfiller of these words seeks to be within a family or group of believers seeking closeness with their creator.  God is the creator of everyone, but only the Father of those who seek to identify themselves within his group of disciples.  “He is the Father of those who love him and do his will.”[41]

Father/πατήρ  is found 418 times in the New Testament.  Literally it means nourisher, protector or upholder.[42]   It is used in the New Testament with one of two meanings. It means either generator-male ancestor or as God the Father.  This same word was used by Jesus just moments prior to teaching the disciples when he told them to go to their secret places and pray to their Father quietly without others hearing.  Either of the two meanings could be applied here.

Martin Luther saw this word at the beginning of the text as permission to go to God with “all boldness and confidence” as a child would to their father with a serious need or desire.[43]  As our “true Father” he is interested and in helping us succeed in fulfilling our needs or finding our true desires.[44]  Luther saw the word as that of our both our ancestor-human like father and also that of our Heavenly Father, looking down on his chosen or true children and seeking to help them prosper and succeed in the spiritual life.

Who/πατήρ  is the article tying together the two parts of this key phrase, connecting the Father and the description of where he lives. As he often did, Jesus used a very common form of this word, found over five hundred times in the New Testament.[45]  The use of “who” in the NASB contrasts with the use of “which” in the King James Version.  In fact the two articles used share the exact same origins.  There is no deep difference between the two although one seems to point to a person and the other to an entity or power.  Both are just parts of speech connecting two parts of a sentence.

Is in/ἐν  has similar characteristics, a common preposition best understood as with, by or in.[46]  It finalizes the link to heaven/οὐρανός, the residence of the Father as stated by Jesus.  This is not the town-like name of a place but rather a description of a region.  Used 274 times in the New Testament, heaven here refers to a place other than Earth, a region above the visible sky where “God dwells along with other heavenly beings.”[47]  While the Bible speaks through the original languages of Heaven in different terms, at times describing different levels or regions of the place where God lives, here it is simply described as the place other than Earth where God dwells.

The word study reveals that Jesus intended for believers to see themselves as part of a bigger community or group.  The Father in Heaven is both our ancestor and our ultimate authority.  We can approach him with the confidence of a child loved by a parent. He lives in a place other than Earth with other heavenly beings.  In our lives as well as our prayers the Father wishes that we approach him, individually and in the presence of other believers.  He wishes us to look to him as a child looks to their father.  He seeks a relationship with us that bridges the distance from the place where he lives and where we live.

Historical Theology Analysis

The analysis of this passage from the historical perspective will focus on the three key words of the passage:  our, Father and Heaven.  When used by Jesus, the question is not what we interpret these to mean today, but what the disciples heard and learned from him when he used these words on that day.

The use of “our” spoke of a community or family, not just of an individual.  The disciples would have heard this context before.  It was one that would have been very familiar to any Jew raised on the teachings of the Torah.  There are many examples of “our” expressed in the Torah to mean a community or family.

“Let us make man in Our image”,  (Genesis 1:26)

“give us rest from Our work”,  (Genesis 5:20)

“Our father is old”,  (Genesis 19:31)

“our family through our father”,  (Genesis 19:34)

“the practice in our place”,  (Genesis 29:26)

“in our father’s house”,  (Genesis 31:14)

“from our father”,  (Genesis 31:16)

“in the presence of our kinsmen”,  (Genesis 31:32)

“take our daughters”,  (Genesis 34:9)

“treat our sister”,  (Genesis 34:31)

“kill our brother”,  (Genesis 37:26)

“Your servant our father”,  (Genesis 43:28)

“go with our young and our old”,  (Exodus 10:9)

“spared our homes”,  (Exodus 12:27)

“kill us and our children”,  (Exodus 17:3)

“Our wives and our little ones”,  (Numbers 14:3)

“while our little ones live”,  (Numbers 32:17)

“Our brethren have made our hearts melt”,  (Deuteronomy1:28)

“animals as our booty”,  (Deuteronomy 3:7)

“covenant with our fathers”,  (Deuteronomy 5:3)

The use of “our” “links the praying person to other believers,” making them part of a community, not an individual circumstance.[48]  The prayer’s very first word set a tone for the suggested prayer and activity to come.  Young Jewish men, raised on the Torah, would be very familiar with the family or community concept.  Jesus’ choice of this word sets a tone that proper prayer or proper living is not done alone, but most appropriately in a group of believers.  The first word sets the tone and the second word gives the believer the focus of his prayers and life.

The Hebrew version of Father used in the prayer indicates the biological father of a person or an ancestor.[49]  It would also have a very familiar sound to a student of the Torah.  It is used in its parallel Greek version in the Old Testament to indicate the biological fathers of familiar Jewish leaders.

“a man shall leave his father” (Genesis 2:24)

“he was the father of those” (Genesis 4:20)

“died in the presence of his father” (Genesis 11:28)

“from your father’s house” (Genesis 12:1)

“go to your fathers” (Genesis 15:15)

“land of your fathers”  (Genesis 48:21)

“Israel your father” (Genesis 49:2)

“God of your father” (Genesis 49:25)

“blessings of your father” (Genesis 49:26)

“Joseph fell on his father’s face” (Genesis 50:1)

“he buried his father” (Genesis 50:14)

“God of your fathers” (Exodus 3:13)

“He who strikes is father” (Exodus 21:15)

“in his father’s place” (Leviticus 16:32)

“nakedness of your father” (Leviticus 18:7)

“shall reverence his mother and father” (Leviticus 19:3)

The Torah used “father” to illustrate the father of an individual, God as father of his people.[50]  It was a term of great respect and honor.  The listeners to Jesus would not have thought of a heavenly being in this circumstance.  They would have pictured their own biological father or a father-figure from their family.  The use of “our” and “father” would have verbally connected them to Jesus as their biological brother, the children of the same father.  They would have all been of one family with the same family leader, the same father.  The combination of these two words would have had an earthly, practical context to a listener in that setting.  If Jesus has stopped after those first two words, the lesson would have been tremendous. He was guiding them to look to each other for support as a family with a common ancestor or father.  But this was just the beginning of the lesson he would teach that day.

The disciple’s perspective of Heaven determined their perspective of where the Father lived, to they were to live for and who was to be the object of their prayers.  The disciples’ concept of Heaven may have been very different from a believer today.  From the Torah, Heaven is a region, a place above the visible universe, the home of God.[51]  It is sometimes translated as “sky” in some texts.[52] At this time the concept of immortal life and an everlasting existence in the presence of God was not yet taught or accepted widely.  Heaven was a place that God had created and lived.  How God’s Heaven related to life on Earth would be defined by the life and ministry of Christ.  The disciples would have had a Torah taught perspective of Heaven.

“God created the Heavens” (Genesis 1:1)

“God called the expanse Heaven” (Genesis 1:8)

“Let the waters below the heavens be gathered” (Genesis 1:9)

“the heaves and the earth were completed” (Genesis 2:1)

“the angel of the Lord called to him from Heaven” (Genesis 22:15)

“with its top reaching to Heaven” (Genesis 28:12)

“throw it toward the sky” (Exodus 9:8)

“Moses stretch his hand toward the sky” (Exodus 9:23)

“from under Heaven” (Exodus 17:14)

“the Lord made the heavens” (Exodus 20:11)

“I have spoken to you from Heaven” (Exodus 20:22)

“I will also make your sky” (Leviticus 26:19)

“lift your eyes to Heaven” (Deuteronomy 4:19)

The disciples would have thought of Heaven as a region, as the heavens above the Earth, not as a place of residence or their ultimate destination.  This perspective of Heaven completes the historical theological perspective of this portion of the passage.  “Our Father who is in Heaven” sounded more like an ancestor of everyone all who looks down from heaven to the original listeners of this passage.  The concept of an all-powerful, all-knowing God who looked down on Earth from above was alive and well, taught to the Jews of that day from their childhood.

In summary, the original language and historical perspective teaches us that Jesus intended his followers to look to God as a community, not only as individuals.  The Heavenly Father is a literal figure, in many ways like an ancestral, earthly father.  The Heaven where the Father resides is a place other than Earth, likely where he looks down on his children below.  This understanding of the meaning of the original words along with the perspective of the original listeners leads us to the modern implications of this part of the prayer.





Contemporary Theology Analysis

Jesus’ intentions are obvious from the first word.  “Ours is a plea for the universal brotherhood of our race and for our universal charity” towards each other.[53] It is intended that we approach the Father not only as an individual but also within a group of believers. Jesus himself did not live or work alone.  He shared nearly every moment of his adult ministry with several others around him.  There were times of private prayer, rest and reflection, but these were not the norm.  He lived and worked with a group of brothers who walk the earth with him throughout his ministry.  The idea of this brotherhood extends beyond this first word. This often overlooked characteristic of this passage was passionately written of and spoken of by one of Christianity’s move beloved and respected theologians.

Thomas Aquinas believed and preached that “we were created for no greater purpose than friendship with God.”[54]  Before we knew God the Father, he promised to be our God, to watch over and protect us. He desires a relationship with us.  It is not because of anything we have done but because he chose to be “our” Father.  This is much like the choice of an earthly father in fathering a child.  The family of Christianity may be the only one that matters.  “Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people.” (I Peter 2:10)  When we join the family or community of Christianity, we become part of the “our”.

Jesus’ use of our also implies a direct relationship between him and us! We share the Heavenly Father with Jesus his Son.  He reigns over us from Heaven with the Heavenly Father and the Holy Spirit but is one with us in our relationship to God.  He came to Earth to express that relationship with us and confirms it with the first word of this passage.

“Father” reminds us not only that we were created from another but that we also have brothers and sisters.  We not only have earthly brothers and sisters, but Jesus himself. We may confidently approach God in both prayer and life as the fleshly brother of the earthly Jesus.  “We have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which he inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His Flesh.”  (Hebrews 10:19-20)

“Father” is also distinctive as a name for God in Jewish teaching.[55]  In this example for his followers, Jesus did not address God with any title emphasizing his lordship, greatness or power as was the custom of that day.  He simply said to call God “Father”.  We address his in the same emotion as our earthly father, then immediately show his separation as living “in Heaven”.  Also unlike an earthly father, we cannot be separated from our Heavenly Father.  No power on Earth “will be able to separate us from the love of God in Jesus Christ our Lord.”  (Romans 8:38-39).

Jesus using the title Father is also significant for contemporary application because of the New Testament tone he helped to set.  In the Old Testament, God is referred to as Father only six times.[56] Jesus refers to God as “my Father” or “our Father” more than 60 times.[57]  A Father is someone who gives life and provides for a family.  “Our Father” speaks of both the family and the parent.

Our Father is in Heaven, not here on Earth. The passage speaks to the idea that God the Father resides in a place other than Earth.  He figuratively or literally looks down on his earthly creations.  The practical application is again that of a parent looking in on his children.  The watchful eye of a parent on the playground is a good analogy.  Acknowledging God as the loving father of his children on Earth both sets the stage for the rest of the passage as well as forming the foundation for asking God to help us, his children, live daily in his will.


Chapter Summary

The examination of the original language and the historical perspective lead to clear indications of the path to a life closer to the Heavenly Father.  Jesus seeks that we live as a community, not just as an individual. He wishes that we look to the creator not just as a God, but as a loving parent, bringing us life and lovingly watching over us in our lives.  This parent lives in a place other than Earth. In this passage, there is no promise to getting to Heaven to be with God but a plan for a more Heaven-linked life here on Earth.  Now that the recipient of the prayer and his location has been determined, the next passages will begin to even more clearly show the way to speak directly to God in search of a righteous life.


















“Hallowed be Your name.”


Key Word Analysis

ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου

The next portion of the passage begins with a phrase not familiar to a modern reader, even in biblical translations using modern language.  It has the same root as the holiday Halloween, or All Saints Eve, but in other contexts is seldom used in contemporary writing or conversation.[58] In this biblical passage it used as a phrase, not as a singular word.

Hallowed be/ἁγιάζω  is the same phrase used in the Luke version of the prayer.[59]  It is used only in these two places in the New Testament.[60]  It refers to things sacred or holy, persons dedicated to God.  This use declares the name of the Father in the previous phrase as-different-than an earthly father; one who is sacred and holy. This phrase is used only to describe the Heavenly Father, the object of our prayers.

“Hallowed be Your name” (Matthew 6:9)

“hallowed be your name” (Luke 11:2)

Used in this manner “Hallowed be” implies that “thy name” is dedicated to or sanctified by God.[61]  The “name” is referring to a person whose name is completely godly.  He may relate to us in some ways as an ancestral-earthly father, but his name is complete holy, sacred and completely different than anything on earth. And, just as the “pray” in the first verse of the key passage was a word used only one other place in scripture in the words of Paul instructing us to pray without ceasing, “hallowed be” is only used one other place as well.  It is used in Luke in the parallel synoptic version of the prayer, used by Luke in the same way as used by Matthew.  Keeping in mind that both versions of the pray were written from memory years after the event, this is highly significant.  Both Matthew and Luke clearly remembered the use of this unique phrase by Jesus in referring to “Our Father”.

The next two words in this passage are very different than the first two.  They are among the most common in the Greek used in the New Testament.  Your/ σύ and name/ ὄνομα are each used dozens of times by New Testament writers.   Your/ σύ is one of most common of all Greek personal pronouns, expressing possession of beliefs, personal possessions or ideas. It also translates as “yourselves”. This same word is used later in the prayer in “your kingdom come.”  It simply implies possession.

“with your father” (Matthew 6:1)

“be your judges” (Matthew 12:27)

“be your servant” (Matthew 20:26)

“be your slave” (Matthew 20:27)

“be your servant” (Matthew 23:11)

Name/ ὄνομα refers to a proper noun or name. In this use it refers back to “Our Father”.  The name of the intended recipient of this prayer is holy and sacred.

“in your name, cast out demons” (Mathew 7:22)

“You will be hated because of my name” (Matthew 10:22)

“whoever receives a child in my name, receives me” (Mathew 18:5)

“where two or three are gathered in my name” (Matthew 18:22)

“many will come in my name” (Matthew 24:5)

He may be initially understood as an earthly father or ancestor but is truly holy and sacred as our Heavenly Father.  He is completely unique and worthy of our prayers, as the unique language at the beginning of this phrase indicates.  As the Heavenly Father, He alone is worthy of the status of hallowed.  The Heavenly Father is the only entity in the Bible referred to as hallowed as we have already discussed.

The word analysis of this phrase of the key passage describes the receiver of the prayer as the most holy or sacred of all Gods whose name is equally as holy and sacred.  To come before him in prayer is an action to be carefully considered and taken seriously.  To speak in the presence of the most holy God is an honor and privilege held for his believers and those who seek to believe. Living your life in his presence is equally a serious endeavor.

Historical Theology Analysis

The disciples would have heard the word hallowed based on their personal experiences.  The disciples hearing this word would have “surely connected the word with their long holiness tradition as a nation.”[62]  The concept of something or someone holy would have been taught to them from their childhood.

A young Jewish may would have started his formal Torah education at the age of six by attending a Bet Sefer, a local synagogue school.[63]  Six days a week they would learn the scriptures of the entire five books of Moses, word by word, verse by verse.  The image of something or someone holy or sacred would be clear to them. Leviticus 19 may have been a focal passage on this topic.

“You shall be holy, for I the LORD your God am holy.” (Leviticus 19:2)

“for he has profaned the Holy thing of the Lord” (Leviticus 19:8)

“its fruit shall be holy, an offering of praise” (Leviticus 19:24)

A Jewish man of that day would have accepted as fact that God was holy or hallowed.  Names and descriptive words in the Torah were not only labels but also descriptions of a person’s character or personality.  “The name change of Abram (“exalted father”) to Abraham (“father of a multitude”) provided a reminder” of both the person and the characteristics of the man.[64]  Use of the word hallowed would have instantly taken the listening disciples to a vision of a God in Heaven, purely holy and sacred.

Jesus taught that the receiver of the prayer way not only holy, but their Father who is holy.  Like an earthly father, our Heavenly Father has the ultimate goal that his “children believe in him” and that “he save them from their sins.”[65]  He not only seeks to hear and know them but to take care of them as well, as a father would do.  There are other references using hallowed with which the disciples would also have been familiar.

“the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it” (Exodus 20:11)

“he shall be hallowed” (Exodus 29:21)

“for they are hallowed” (Numbers 16:37)

“all the hallowed things” (Numbers 18:18)

“the hallowed things” (Deuteronomy 16:13)

            Hallowed was also used to describe people, places and things, in addition to the Heavenly Father.  The circumstances of the scripture would determine the final use of the word.  The disciples would have heard and respected this description of the name of the Father.  It would have set a very serious and focused tone for the prayer after addressing the Father in Heaven who was now described as hallowed    

Contemporary Theology Analysis

This portion of the key passage has clear contemporary implications.  By declaring the name of the recipient of the prayer to be completely holy and sacred, Jesus is challenging us to pray and live to be as holy and sacred as we are capable.  By following the intent of the passage, “we declare our desire and intent to live differently.”[66]  Hallowing a name is closely linked to glorifying the name of God.  We do not just by prayer and intent but by our lives!  We declare God to be hallowed, or holy by words as well as deeds.  “Pray like this” is synonymous with live-like-this.  We wish to pray and live in the name of the hallowed and holy Heavenly Father.

By the way we live we truly show the Father to be hallowed. We recognize God as “worthy of reference, honor and worship” by deeds and not just words.[67]  We prove his name as hallowed not just as we speak and intend to do so, but in that we “also lead holy lives according” to that name.[68]  This opening phrase of the passage addressing the “Our Father” whom we seek, sets the stage for all that is to come. If we are to successfully address and petition him, we must first acknowledge him as completely holy.

This may be the “least real” portion of all the Lord’s Prayer.[69]  To live this passage is to make the prayer or petition all about him and nothing about us.  We declare his name as holy in the first phrase.  That is the intent of what follows.  If we fail in this mission, we fail in it all.  “Christ insisted on unselfishness when he taught us” this passage.[70]  He sets the tone of reverence and holiness before we even get started!  It is not about us.  “It is as though He said to us:  You are not to live for yourself.”[71]  The passage and life are all about declaring and showing him to be hallowed and holy.  If we do not truly take the name of the Father to holy in our intentions, words and deeds, the rest of the prayer, the rest of our lives is just activity and motion.  Failing to accomplish the required beginning of the prayer or task is failing to establish the foundation for all that is to come.

If “Hallowed by your name” is truly our belief and intent, not just our words and petitions to the Heavenly Father but also our actions and lives in front of him will fulfil the promise we make.  All that lies ahead in the prayer and life of a believer is based on the success of this initial foundation. If we do not truly strive to believe and to live as if his name is hallowed, we cannot expect to succeed in any part of our spiritual journey.  All that follows stands on this foundation.

Chapter Summary

“Hallowed be your name” sets the tone for the prayer to come.  By declaring God to be holy, we declare that he is not only capable of hearing and answering our prayers but also worthy of our worship. To truly declare God holy is not a verbal exercise, but a life time effort.  If say these words in our prayers, but do not practice them in our lives, the words are shallow and without substance.  If we do not strive to live the prayer, to declare God holy in our everyday lives, we cannot expect our God to hear the prayer. These words set the tone for the prayer and hopefully for our lives as well.





“Your kingdom come,”


Key Word Analysis

σύ βασιλεία ἔρχομαι

The second phrase of the passage addresses God the Father directly.  It declares that σύ/your, or God’s kingdom should come.  Used by the believer in this way, this phrase is the declaration of a choice and a desire for a final outcome.

The word used for your is a very common second person pronoun, used almost 5000 times in the Bible.[72]  The use of such a common word is significant.  It implies that this phrase should be an everyday assumption on the part of the believer.  It should be a common thought and implied in the words, thoughts and everyday actions of the believer.  The kingdom of God is what matters and it will one day come completely!  The kingdom referenced in the prayer belongs to the receiver of the prayer, The Father.

The word chosen for kingdom/βασιλεία/ is also in the common language of the day.[73]  Kingdom here means any royal dominion or territory.  It is used to describe not only the kingdom of God but the kingdom of other biblical greats and even Satan.  (Mathew 12:26)  The use in the passage implies that the believer has a choice in the kingdom they chose to support and the use of this passage shows their choice.  To the believer, there is only one kingdom that matters..

Jesus used this word often.  It “was the dominant word of His Gospel”.[74]  He often used it in reference to the Kingdom of God.  Here are examples of Jesus’ use of this word just in Mathew:

“the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”  Matthew 4:17

“the gospel of the kingdom.”  Matthew 4:23

“for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 5:3

“for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 5:10

“shall be called least in the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 5:19

“you will not enter the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 5:20

“yours is the kingdom and the power.”  Matthew 6:13

“seek first his kingdom.”  Matthew 6:33

“enter the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 7:21

“Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 8:11

“sons of the kingdom will be cast out”  Matthew 8:12

“proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom”  Mathew 9:35

“The kingdom of Heaven is at hand.”  Mathew 10:7

“who is least in the kingdom of Heaven”  Matthew 11:11

“until now the kingdom of Heaven suffers”  Mathew 11:12

“the kingdom of God has come upon you” Mathew 12:28

“the mysteries of the kingdom of Heaven”  Matthew 13:11

“the word of the kingdom”  Matthew 13:19

“The kingdom of Heaven may be compared” Matthew 13:24

“The kingdom of Heaven is like a mustard seed” Matthew 13:31

“The kingdom of Heaven is like leaven”  Mathew 13:33

“the sons of the kingdom” Matthew 13:38

“gather out of his kingdom”  Matthew 13:41

“the sun in the kingdom of their Father”  Matthew 13:43

“The kingdom of Heaven is like a treasure” Mathew 13:44

“The kingdom of Heaven is like a merchant” Matthew 13:45

“The kingdom of Heaven is like a dragnet” Mathew 13:47

“a disciple of the kingdom of Heaven” Matthew 13:52

“the keys of the kingdom of Heaven” Matthew 16:19

“the Son of Man coming in his kingdom” Matthew 16:28

“you will not enter the kingdom of Heaven” Matthew 18:3

“he is the greatest in the kingdom of Heaven” Matthew 18:4

Jesus used this word to describe not only “Christ’s description of the Kingdom of God, the sphere of God’s rule”, but also the “character of the citizens of the kingdom.” [75]  The use of this word by Jesus was to give description as well as to express action.  The believer that seeks the Father seeks not only that his kingdom will come but that the believer will be a part of that kingdom.

The kingdom will someday come/ἔρχομαι at the declaration of the believer in this passage.  This form of come is also common and implies action.  It is not a word used to communicate only an idea only but also the movement from place to place by a person or object.[76]  It implies movement, not just desire.

“For we saw his star in the East and have come to worship him.”  Matthew 2:2

“…report to me so that I too can come to worship him.”  Matthew 2:8

“…it came and stood over the place where the child was.”  Mathew 2:9

“I will come and heal him.”  Matthew 8:7

“When Jesus came unto Peter’s house…”  Matthew 8:14

“For I came to set a man…”  Matthew 10:35

“…and the birds came and ate them up.”  Matthew 13:4

“…they came  to land at Gennesaret.”  Matthew 14:34

The phrase in the key passage declares that the kingdom of God will literally come to the place of the speaker.  It is a declaration of both prophecy and desire.  If the life of the believer is lived to be part of the kingdom of God, that life helps bring the kingdom to come in the life of the believer.


Historical Theology Analysis

The context in which the disciples heard the phrase “your kingdom come” is the next focus.  Based on their backgrounds, education and personal circumstances they heard this phrase with very specific implied meanings.  There is one verse in the Torah which closely matches these words of Jesus.

In 2 Samuel 7:12, Nathan was commanded to tell David that David’s kingdom would lead to the kingdom of God one day after David’s death.  “When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendants after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom.” God’s kingdom would come after the Earthly kingdom of David.  Your kingdom come was an extension of that passage.

This passage from Samuel was speaking to the Kingdom of God in the future, the kingdom that would come to be as a result of David and his descendants.  This parallels closely the words of Jesus in this passage of the prayer. Jesus was speaking to the future Kingdom of God, the one to come after Jesus’ time on Earth and the coming work of his followers.  The Jewish followers of Jesus of that day wished him to be the promised Messiah, bringing to an end their earthly struggles and beginning the new Kingdom of God.  Jesus was telling them in his words that the Kingdom of God was still yet to come.  He was not the promised Messiah in the form they desired.  He would tell them later in Matthew “when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He will sit on His glorious throne.”  (Matthew 25:31)

There are multiple historical references to two word combinations of the three word phrase your kingdom come in your kingdom. Your kingdom has fourteen Old Testament references.

“now the Lord would have established your kingdom”  1 Samuel 13:13

“your kingdom shall not endure.”  1 Samuel 13:14

“your kingdom will be established.”  1 Samuel 20:31

“your kingdom shall endure”  2 Samuel 7:16

“I will establish the throne of your kingdom”  1 King 9:5

“provinces of your kingdom”  Esther 3:8

“uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom” Psalm 45:6

“speak of the glory of your kingdom”  Psalm 145:11

“the majesty of your kingdom” Psalm 145:12

“Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom.”  Psalm 145:13

“your kingdom will assured to you” Daniel 4:26

“a man in your kingdom”  Daniel 5:11

“God has numbered your kingdom”  Daniel 5:26

“your kingdom has been divided”  Daniel 5:28

The disciples would have put the phrase your kingdom in the context of a kingdom with personal ownership of a king or heavenly being.  In both the Samuel and King’s references, the phrase was used to communicate the direct and personal ownership of Saul and Solomon of the Nation of Israel.  This phrase indicated intimate ownership of a kingdom.

In contrast there are no direct Torah or Old Testament references to kingdom come.  There are many indirect references that refer to a future kingdom.

“let us go to Gilgal and renew the kingdom there.”  1 Samuel 11:14

“He will set his face to come with the power of his kingdom”  Daniel 11:17

“To you it will come…the kingdom”  Micah 4:8

Each reference implies a kingdom to come or develop in the future.  The words of Jesus here would have been heard by the disciples as the desire or declaration of God’s Kingdom to come at some point in the future, later today or many years in the future.  The time frame was unclear.

From the historical perspective of their backgrounds, the disciples would have heard your kingdom come as a declarative statement, not as a desire or prayer, speaking to the future-coming kingdom of God the Father.  The prayer was not just an expression of longing for this day but a statement of faith that this day was coming.  The timing of the Kingdom from the Disciple’s historical perspective would have been different from what the modern believer perceives today.

Jews of that day were looking for the messianic kingdom to rule their current world.  They likely hoped that Jesus would “reign from a throne in Jerusalem over the whole Earth.”[77]  That was not his plan or intention but any analysis of the historical theology, the historical perspective of the Disciples hearing these words for the first time would be incomplete without a discussion of what they hoped Jesus would be as compared what and who he actually was.  Jesus would teach them in the days to come, by his words and his actions, that the Kingdom of God was yet to come, not yet coming to Earth.

Yet the Disciples at this time would have heard these words in support of their desired Earthly kingdom, The Torah and the Old Testament had clearly laid the foundation for a Kingdom of God on Earth. The Earthly messianic kingdom was predicted to be spiritual, political, ecclesiastical, economic, physical and moral.[78]  Jews of that day saw it as the ultimate end to the centuries old struggle of their people over evil. “The Jews thought of a visible material kingdom, like that of David.”[79]  They were “fed up with the other kings they had had for long enough.”[80]

“A descendant of Judah will come to rule.”  Genesis 49:10

“You will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”  Exodus 19:6

“Let us set a King over us…”  Deuteronomy 17:14-20

“Your house and kingdom will endure forever before me…”  2 Samuel 7:11-12

“the government will be on his shoulders.”  Isaiah 9:6

“The Lord Almighty will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem.”  Isaiah 24:23

“The Lord will rule over them in Mount Zion from that day…”  Micah 4:7-8

As is the case today and always, what the speaker was saying and what the audience was hearing were not the same things.  There will be an Earthly Kingdom ruled by God but it was not to be the immediate kingdom the Disciples were likely seeking to hear in the words of Jesus that day.



Contemporary Theology Analysis

The coming kingdom of God is inevitable, on Heaven and on Earth.  “The King will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance, the kingdom prepared for you since the creation of the world.”  (Mathew 25:34)  “Because God is eternal, so are all of his plans.[81]  To pray and to live in anticipation of the Kingdom is to align with the Scriptures and the actual words of Jesus in this passage.  To openly declare “your kingdom come” is both a prayer and a declaration!

The Christian life is one desiring a closer relationship with the creator today and in future.  “Our deepest longing is that God’s honor be fully vindicated in all creation, that the triumphant, loving sovereignty of God be no longer a mere hope clung to desperately by faith, but a manifest reality.”[82]  As Christ taught and lived, “this kingdom is the highest good for mankind, the goal of effort, the reward of consecration, the abode of blessedness.”[83]  The believer lives in anticipation of the kingdom, with the world lives in denial.

Much as the Disciples, Christians seek an earthly as well as heavenly kingdom.  Later in our key passage “on Earth” will complete the phrase. The Kingdom of God will ultimately connect Heaven and Earth.  The two are “interlocking arenas of God’s good world.”[84]  To pray and declare the Kingdom to come is to physically join those two arenas.  As the Disciples were, modern Christians are also fed up with the current world leadership.

To live in anticipation of the coming kingdom is both the challenge and the thrill of the life of the believer!  We are encouraged, fed and “saved by the hope” of that coming kingdom.[85]  Although “the kingdom will come by itself without our prayer”, the declaration of our desire and alignment with the will of God through both our prayers and our lives is a loud and open statement of our faith, perhaps the best any believer can express.[86]

Chapter Summary

The second phrase of the focus passage calls on the Father directly, declaring the desired outcome of the believer that your kingdom come!  It is the ultimate goal of every believer that the Kingdom of God would be alive, both emotionally and physically: emotionally today in their everyday walk and physically at some point in the future.  The prayer longs for that future day and declares its coming all at the same time.

Jesus used common language in this phrase, words every listener would easily understand.  They clearly understood that he was calling for the Kingdom of God to come to Earth and allow those around him to inhabit it. The Disciples may have thought he was describing the kingdom that Jesus himself was about to establish on the Earth but they would soon learn otherwise.

The coming of the Kingdom of God to Earth is inevitable, predicted clearly in scripture many times.  Only God knows the timing!  For the believer of today to both pray and live this phrase is an open declaration of their longing and readiness for it to soon arrive!












“Your will be done,”

Key Word Analysis

Γενη θήτω  τὸ θέλημά σου

This significance of this second declarative phrase may be seen in part by where these exact words were used by Jesus. They were used twice.  The first is in this passage spoken directly to his disciples as an example of how to speak to The Father.  The second time was in the Garden of Gethsemane, just before the cross. Jesus spoke directly to the Father himself.  “My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, your will be done.” (Matthew 26:42)  His example in the earlier Matthew passage was clearly an example meant for direct communication to The Father in normal, daily times.  The second was provided as an example to be used in extraordinary times of great importance and stress.

The same word for your in your kingdom come was used in this passage, a very common of the personal pronoun of the second person singular, thou.[87] It was used thousands of times in the New Testament and many times daily by any Jew of that day.  Its use shows the simplicity of the idea Jesus wished to express:  the kingdom and the will belonged to the Father.  They were and are each available for the believer, but they belong to The Father.

Will/θέλημά is used fifty nine times in fifty four verses of the New Testament.[88]  It is used to express “what God wishes to be done by us” or “the purpose of God to bless mankind through Christ.”[89]  Jesus was quoted using the word. It was also used in the narratives written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Paul and Peter.  The will of God is one of the most important concepts to the Christian seeking a closer walk with the Heavenly Father.

Here are some of the New Testament examples of the use of θέλημά by Jesus:

“but he who does the will of My Father…” Matthew 7:21

“For whoever does the will of my Father…”  Matthew 12:50

“it is not the will of your Father who is in Heaven”  Mathew 18:14

“Which of the two did the will of his father?”  Matthew 21:31

“unless I drink it, your will be done.”  Matthew 26:42

“For whoever does the will of God”  Mark 3:35

“And that slave who knew his master’s will”  Luke 12:47

“remove this cup from me, yet not My will but yours be done”  Luke 22:42

“the will of Him who sent me.”  John 5:30

“For this is the will of my Father”  John 6:40

“If anyone is willing to do His will”  John 7:17

Here are some other  New Testament examples of the use of θέλημά:

“but he delivered Jesus to their will.”  Luke 23:25

“nor of the will of man, but of God.”  John 1:13

“if anyone is God-fearing and does his will”  John 9:31

“The will of the Lord be done!”  Acts 21:14

Be done/ γενηθήτω  follows the established pattern of the use of common language in the words of Jesus.  It is used almost five hundred times in the New Testament in almost every book by almost every writer.[90]  It can be translated as to take place, to come, to be made or to become.   Here are some examples of its use:

“Now all this took place to fulfill what was spoken”  Matthew 1:22

“his garments became white as snow”  Matthew 17:2

“I will make you become fishers of men”  Mark 1:17

“until the day when these things take place”  Luke 1:20

“all things came into being”  John 1:3

“there came from Heaven” Acts 2:2

“for it we have become united”  Romans 6:5

“so that he may become wise”  1 Corinthians 3:18

“we might become the righteous of God”  2 Corinthians 2:21

“having become a curse”  Galatians 3:13

“I was made a minister” Ephesians 3:7

“Christ has become well known”  Philippians 1:13

“for we have become partakers of Christ”  Hebrews 3:14

The word analysis of your will be done shows the intent of Jesus in his choice of words. He was not requesting or desiring that The Father’s desires would become reality, but declaring that it would occur.  His words do not say we should live in hope of the will of God becoming fact but should live in anticipation of that ultimate conclusion.  The next question to be considered is what was heard by the disciples based on their personal perspectives of the language used.

Historical Theology Analysis

The disciple’s understanding of these words of Jesus may be seen though the historical analysis.  Based on their backgrounds and experiences, how did the disciples hear the phrase your will be done?

The will of God was a subject of much focus in the Jewish culture of that day and today as well.  The disciples’ perspective of this concept would have been formed from both their current culture and the teachings of the Old Testament. First will be an examination of the Old Testament passages followed by a discussion of the Jewish culture of that day.

There are only two instances of your will in Old Testament referencing the will of God.

“I delight to do Your will, O my God, Your Law is within my heart.”  Psalm 40:8

“Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God” Psalm 143:10

The is also an indirect reference in Jerimiah, using different language while implying the same idea of the will of God in a person’s or the world’s experiences.

“For I know the plans I have for you declares the Lord”  Jeremiah 29:11

Both of the Psalm references were written by David from the perspective of a servant of God, seeking to please The Father.  David spoke of “delight” and desire for The Father to “teach” his will to the follower or servant.  In these scriptures, working toward, contributing to and desiring to fulfil your will is the mission of the servant or seeker of God.  The believer seeks “not what we want but what God wants” as God’s servant.[91]  David’s teaching to the disciples was that the follower of God would seek to learn his will.

And David goes further. He “delights” in seeking to do God’s will.  The disciples would have looked up the King David as the ultimate authority.  His “delight” in seeking God’s will would have driven them to do the same, as well as seeking that God would “teach” them that will.  In the Psalm 40 passage, David also connects this concept with the “scroll of the book”, a reference to Deuteronomy 17:14-20.  In that passage, David is established as the King.  In the first Psalm passage, David sets the example for his subjects to follow with the desires of their hearts.  In the second Psalm passage, David sets the example for his subjects to follow with the pursuits of their minds or personal will.   To learn and do the will of God is the duty of any good believer based on the words and example of King David.

The passage from Jeremiah is from a different perspective.  It states that there is a will of God, it is known in advance by The Father and that is for the believer to have a prosperous and happy life.  For the disciples to pray or seek to live in the mission of your will be done is to align themselves with the preordained will of God and find their destiny in that will.  Disciples familiar with this passage would seek to know and live the will of The Father if for no other reason than because it would serve to give them prosperity and happiness.

The will of God was more to Jews of Jesus’ day than just a theological concept. It was deeply embedded into their culture.  To know and to follow that will was their ultimate desire and destiny.  God the Father’s will was preordained and to know and to follow it was the desire of every Jew since Abraham.

God spoke to Abraham telling that he would protect and prosper if he followed God’s way.  For Abraham, your will be done was a path to success and prosperity.

“Do not fear, Abram, I am a shield to you; Your reward will be very great.”  Genesis 15:1

“To your descendants I have given this land”  Genesis 15:18

God had preordained that Abraham would inherit and land and grow to a great nation and the Father would be his shield and protector.  Abraham has simply to learn God’s will and follow it.  The world had given man free will.  The Father gave man the opportunity to use that free will to follow God’s plan with promised rewards.

The historical pattern of following God’s will would have been clear to the disciples.  From Abraham to David, there was a pattern of the great Jewish leaders to seek, know and follow the will of God.  David said it plainly.

“I delight to do Your will, O my God;  Your Law is within my heart.”

Psalm 40:8


Following the will of God was the essence of being a Jewish man in that culture.  It would have seemed a natural point of curiosity and spiritual pursuit to the disciples listening to Jesus that day.  Following God’s will made the Jews God’s people.  He had written it on their hearts.

“I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it.  I will be their God and they shall be My people.”  Jeremiah 31:33-34


Paul expressed in his letter to the Philippians, assuring them that God would help them


achieve his will for their individual lives.


“for it is God who is at work with you, both to will and to work for His good pleasure.”  Phillipians 2:13


It was up to each of them to discover God’s will and follow it in their individual lives.  Some believed it was their destiny.  God will lead their willing nation.  It began at Mount Sinai, where God revealed his laws and commandments in written and oral form.  It is just up to them to follow that law to be within the will of God.  His desire to lead them in his way applies generally as well as to specific trials or even battles.

“The Lord loves him;  he will carry out His good pleasure on Babylon, and his                               arm will be against the Chaldeans.”  Isiah 48:14

God also taught that he would support the life of individuals, provided they sought to follow his will.

“If one man sins against another, God will mediate for him;  but if a man sins                                 against the Lord, who can intercede for him”  1 Samuel 2:25

In summary, the disciples would have heard Jesus speak your will be done and accepted those words from both a personal and cultural perspective.  They would have eagerly sought the way to learn and follow this will.  They would have received the phrase as both a desire and a declaration of things desired to occur. They were very willing to accept this message and direction.  How the contemporary believer receives this message is the next focus.



Contemporary Theology Analysis

To accept the will of God, to desire it to occur and to live as if it is the primary mission of the believer, that believer must be willing to accept God’s will as important.  That sounds simple, yet it is not the nature of man.  The believer must be willing and not willful.

“Willfulness – wanting and demanding that our will be done – reflects our fallenness.”[92]  It is not the will of the Father that dominates man.  It is his own will that dominates. Jesus was seeking to teach a different way.  He began his ministry with this message and ended it in the same way.

In the Garden of Gethsemane, just prior to his death and resurrection, Jesus gave up his own will and desires and made the will of the Father the priority.  He was willing and not willful.

“yet not My will, but Yours be done.”  Luke 22:42

He first set the example in our focus passage in Matthew and then modeled it in the garden passage in Luke.  He announced that your will be done in Matthew and lived it out in the garden passage.  Your will be done was “the theme of his life, contrary to ours.”[93]  In our focus passage, Jesus sought to teach his disciples to “choose the will of the Father,” in their prayers, their desires and in their lives.[94] That teaching is just as relevant today.  We should be willing in our words and actions to accept and seek that your will be done.

Another relevant point of view is based on the question of our place in the will of God.

The desires of the ruler of the universe will like come to be whether we align with them or go another way.  The prayer or walk of a believer can have no real impact.  “But we pray in this petition that it may be done among us also.”[95]  God’s desire will occur with or without our belief or alignment.  It is completely to our benefit that be seek to understand, be part of and help fulfil that will.

We must choose that will over our own.  This may be the most relevant point and significant lesson of the life of Christ.  He chose to seek and follow your will despite the fact that it resulted in the loss of his human life.  This is not a choice that comes easily or naturally.  Karl Barth referred to the choice of following the will of God as the “revolt against disorder.” “It is no part of human nature” to follow your will.[96] “It is against nature”[97]  To follow that will is the beginning “of an obedient life of people in fellowship with God.”[98]  To seek and follow your will is to turn your back on the world and revolt against the natural inclination of all men to control and manage their own lives. Jesus taught just the opposite in your will be done.  To follow Christ is not to just pray these words, but to live them.

There are other reasons to follow and live the doctrine of your will be done.  The sovereignty of God is a key reason.  To live in the way of your will be done is to acknowledge that sovereignty and control in real actions and not just in words.  To live in this way is also to claim the promise that all things “work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose”, according to His Will.

Chapter Summary

Jesus declared to his Father your will be done as both a personal desire and an example to the disciples as he had done many times before.  He used the common language of the day as he had consistently done.  This significant passage would also be repeated again at the end of his earthly ministry, in the Garden of Gethsemane.  Jesus’ life and ministry were a model of consistency.  He gives us the example to follow!

The will of God was an important concept to Jews of that day.  It was studied and discussed in great detail in the Torah education given to the disciples.  The greatest of all Jews, David, wrote many times on discovering and following God’s will.  It was seen as not only the path to pleasing God but the path to success and prosperity as well.  God would support those who sought to learn and follow his way.  It was a subject of great interest to Jesus’ followers, as it should be to us today.

We must first learn that will and also have the personal willingness to follow that way.  The life of Jesus was a clear and simple example of that process.  Choosing that will over our own desires may be the most significant lesson from the life of Christ.  How we choose to pray, declare and live your will be done is both a measure of our commitment to Christ as well as roadmap to that goal. How we follow the map is may be the most significant measurement of our dedication to your will.














“On earth as it is in heaven.”

Key Word Analysis

ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ  καὶ  ἐπὶ  γῆς

This phrase of the passage serves as a bridge connecting the Godly world and the earthly one.  Its shows the intent of Jesus that all that is heavenly is also intended to be earthly in the life of the believer.  Two of the key words describe the locations connected by the center phrase.

On/ἐπί is a primary preposition creating the distribution of ideas from the previous passage to those that follow. It implies that the ideas being connected are in a similar position on, at or across from each other.  Jesus intended that we praise the Father, declare his coming kingdom and express the desire that his will be done equally in both places. This is the beginning of the idea that Jesus would develop later in his ministry that the two places would eventually converge for his believers as well as all earthly inhabitants.

Earth/γῆ is the object of the opening preposition.  This form of the word clearly indicates a tangible, human place.  Used 250 times in the Greek New Testament, it indicates soil, arable land, ground that a man can stand upon, the land as opposed to the ocean or an established country with borders.[99]  It can mean a small place or the entire planet.

“And you Bethlehem, land of Judah” Matthew 2:6

“go into the land of Israel” Mathew 2:20

“for they shall inherit the earth”  Matthew 5:5

“The news spread throughout all the land.”  Matthew 9:26

“And he directed the people to sit down on the ground.” Matthew 15:35

“where it did not have much soil”  Mark 4:5

“Other seeds fell into the good soil”  Mark 4:8

“a man who casts seeds upon the soil”  Mark 4:26

“he was alone on the land”  Mark 6:47

“they came to land”  Mark 6:53

The Earth as referenced in this passage is a real, tangible place.  It is not just an idea or desired place, it is the place where the disciples live and breathe.  This phrase of the passage connects the desired Heaven with the real Earth.

As/ὡς ἐν  it is in connects the two places. It is translated as with, among,

throughout or with.  It is used to link strong and significant ideas.

“she was found to be with child”  Matthew 1:18

“spread the news about him throughout the land”  Matthew 9:31

“they began to discuss this among themselves”  Matthew 16:7

“he had his dwelling among the tombs”  Mark 5:3

“among his own relatives”  Mark 6:4

“among those born of women”  Luke 7:28

The disciples understood the concept of Earth, the land where they lived.  Now the passage will complete the connection from the Earth of men to the Heaven of God.  Heaven/οὐρανός is the completion of this key phrase.  It is the destination, leaving the earthly land and arriving at the abode of God.[100]

This Greek word goes beyond the home of God.  It also describes happiness, power and eternity, as well as the place God lives.  Jesus teaches that we should desire all things of Heaven to come to Earth and the two become one for the believer.

“the kingdom of Heaven is at hand”  Matthew 3:2

“for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven”  Matthew 5:3

“glorify your Father who is in Heaven”  Matthew 5:16

“greatest in the kingdom of Heaven”  Matthew 18:1

“He saw the heavens opening”  Mark 1:10

“a voice came out of the heavens”  Mark 1:11

“looking up to Heaven”  Mark 7:34

“Heaven was opened”  Luke 3:21

“looking up to Heaven”  Luke 9:16

“will not be exalted to Heaven”  Luke 10:15

In this phrase Jesus connects Heaven and Earth.  He models to his disciples the life that he leads, constantly thinking of one and living in the other, working to connect the two. He teaches them to ask their Heavenly Father to make the connection in their daily lives, to live in the will of God “on Earth as it is in Heaven”.

Historical Theology Analysis

The historical perspective of the disciples would have been clear for the disciples listening to Jesus on this day.  Earth and Heaven are concepts firmly implanted in the Torah teachings given to the disciples and believers of that day.  They start in the first chapter of the first book of Genesis.

“God made the beasts of the earth after their kind”  Genesis 1:25

“no shrub of the field was yet in the earth”  Genesis 2:5

“But a mist used to rise from the earth”  Genesis 2:6

“Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground”  Genesis 2:7

“from the day that they came upon the earth”  Exodus 10:6

“that your days may be prolonged in the land”  Exodus 20:12

“You are to possess the land”  Leviticus 20:24

“anything that creeps on the land” Leviticus 20:25

“and the ground opens its mouth”  Numbers 16:30

“shall see the land”  Numbers 32:11

“all the days they live in the earth”  Deuteronomy 4:10

“anything that creeps on the ground”  Deuteronomy 4:18

Many of these references to the earth, the land, the ground are very practical in their nature.  The earth as described in the Torah is the dirt of the ground, the place to live, the place to build an earthly kingdom.  There would have been no doubt in the minds of the disciples as to what Jesus meant by “on Earth”.  It was the place that they and their ancestors lived and struggled to survive and sometimes thrive.  It was the dirt upon which they stood.

Heaven was an equally well understood concept. It is referred to over four hundred times in the Old Testament.[101]  Unlike the practical dirt/ground references in the Old Testament to Earth, the references to Heaven are quite different.  The Hebrew word for Heaven refers more to a region, all the visible heavens in the night sky, the place where God lives.  Heaven is a very big and intangible place in the Torah.  It is no less real and to some extent must be intangible since men live on Earth and God lives in Heaven. It is essentially the sky above us, the place where God lives.  Although “it was not God’s purpose to reveal the details of cosmic geography” in the Torah, Heaven or the heavens, were the place where God lives.[102]

“In the beginning God created the heavens”  Genesis 1:1

“God called the expanse Heaven” Genesis 1:8

“the expanse of the heavens”  Genesis 1:17

“the open expanse of the heavens”  Genesis 1:20

“let Moses throw it toward the sky”  Exodus 9:8

“stretch out your hand toward the sky”  Exodus 9:22

“I will rain bread from heaven”   Exodus 16:4

“Amalek from under heaven”   Exodus 17:14

“I have spoken to you from heaven”  Exodus 20:22

Earth and Heaven were clear concepts to the disciples.  To connect Earth and Heaven was also a clear goal in their upbringing.  The life of a Jew was to live on Earth knowing they would eventually be accountable for their actions. What Jesus did that was different in his teaching was to make the connection for today.  His teaching was that it is not about tomorrow or an eternal set of consequences for earthly actions but about a daily live in search of creating Heaven on Earth.  The contemporary implications of this passage are also clear.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

While the concept of a prayer is that we ask God to do things for us, in this passage Jesus tells his disciples that the Father is “determined that human beings represent him on earth” as well.[103]  Jesus models the prayer and the behavior that his followers on earth will strive to bring Heaven to Earth, to join the two as the Kingdom of God.  God shows his love for us by allowing us to call on his power and bring his kingdom to where we live.  He originally tried this with Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden with less than the desired results.  But Jesus encourages us through this passage to continue to pursue this goal.

Jesus encourages us to “pursue the Father’s will on earth.”[104]  This is part of our path to Heaven, as he later stated in Matthew that “he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter” the heavenly kingdom.  (Matthew 7:21)  Jesus is the living link between the two places.  As God has “brought the Father’s Son down from heaven to humility, obedience and suffering”, he has also created the path to “eternal life, exaltation and authority.”[105]  The path is to follow the words and example of the life of Jesus while he was here on Earth.  He teaches and models to his followers by declaring that the will of God will be done “on Earth as it is in Heaven.”

The example of Jesus follows the example of the Father in sending him, beginning the living link of Heaven and Earth that he leaves up to us to complete.  “The Word became flesh and dwelt among us.”  (John 1:14)  God created this living connection between the two places by the ultimate sacrifice, by sending his Son.  “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only son.”  (John 3:16)  God connected the “exceptional in the ordinary.”[106] By his presence on the physical planet, Jesus made the two places one.  Here in our passage he teaches his disciples to continue that quest, “on Earth as it is in Heaven.”  “As my father has sent me I am sending you.”  (John 20:21)

To the believer, Heaven and Earth can the same place.  “Heaven is that place where God is and where we are totally with God.”[107]  It is up to the believer to make that connection.  We must look for, see and follow God on Earth before we can do so in Heaven. Jesus lived that behavior and encouraged his followers in this passage to make that the continuous goal, to do the will of God in both places.  Christian prayer and daily Christian life are about pursuing and following the will of the Father, not our own.  Jesus even modeled that behavior.  In the Garden of Gethsemane, he prayed to be delivered from the fate that was coming.  The Father answered “no” in the events that followed.  Despite an answer to his prayer different than he sought, he followed the will of the Father “on Earth as it is in Heaven.”  There are other examples of this behavior.

Paul prayed to be delivered from his “thorn in the flesh.” (2 Corinthians 12:7)  The prayer was not answered in the way he desired.  He prayed for this relief three times and in the end, accepted his circumstance “for Christ’s sake.”  (2 Corinthians 12:10)  He accepted the will of God on Earth.  As far as we know Paul was only delivered from his suffering in death.

It is important to note that this part of the passage in in the present tense.  It is not a prayer of aspiration for the future.  Jesus stated that that the will of the Father should be done in both the earthly and heavenly kingdoms.  He did not say this was about the past or the future.  His words were about that day.  He did not live on Earth in anticipation of his return to Heaven.  He lived on Earth every day in the flesh and in the present. That thought would be more fully developed in the next phrase of the passage but it is important here as well.  We should seek the will of God to be done today “on Earth as it is in Heaven.”  It is easier to see the will of God in the future tense, in our imagined eternal, heavenly future.  “It is possible to see glimpse of God’s kingdom here on earth, so there are times when we can experience or observe God’s will be done” today.[108]  We are not to wait for the will of God to occur in our heavenly future, but in today’s experiences; the experiences “on Earth”.  The passage does not say “on Earth as it will be in Heaven.”  It reads “on Earth as it is in Heaven”, today.

In another passage, Jesus encouraged his disciples to live for today, not for the future.  He compared their lives to those of the ravens and lilies.  (Luke 12:24-27)  These simple creations live and exist for today with no apparent earthly worries.  As God takes care of them he will care for us.  Let us seek his will every day, “on Earth as it is Heaven.”

Chapter Summary

This phrase of the passage connects Heaven and Earth.  Jesus prayed for, sought and lived the will of the Father in both places at the same time.  He encouraged his disciples to do the same in his words and actions.

Heaven and Earth were places well known to the Jews of Jesus’ day.  They were equally real places in their own ways. The difference Jesus sought to make in this passage was to make them continuously one place for his believers.  They should all seek that the will of God be done equally in Heaven and on Earth.  The will of God was not a concept for the future, for life in Heaven after death.  It was and is the objective of the believer today.

In the next phrase, Jesus would take this concept of time to the next level.  Heaven and Earth would not only be linked in the objective that the will of God be done in both places at the same time, but that this would occur at this moment, today!  Our lives should be pointed toward the will of God every day, every hour, every waking minute.  Our fulfilment in the Father does not come at some future date when we pass from this existence to the next.  It is available “on Earth as it is in Heaven.”  It is up to us to live it and claim it!  Today!















“Give us this day our daily bread.”


Key Word Analysis

Tὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον

In this phrase of the passage, Jesus continued the connection of Earth and Heaven from the last phrase by moving to a distinctly human and earthly topic:  bread.  While Luther called this the Fourth Petition, continuing from the earlier petitions in his interpretation of the pattern of the passage, it seems to this writer that the tone of the passage distinctly changes in this verse.[109]  These words bridge the gap between spiritual and physical by moving the theme of the teaching from the will of God to the daily necessities of life.  While bread is used in the New Testament to mean different types of food, it moves the focus to “seeking from the hand of God all the necessities of life.”[110]

Give/δίδωμι is a common verb used 414 times in the New Testament meaning bestow, bring forth, commit, and deliver (up), grant, make or minister.[111]  It is used for both literal and figurative purposes.  It is used to indicate one person giving something to another, granting something that is asked for or delivering something to someone’s care.  It can be used as a declaration or as a request, as it is used in this passage.  As has been seen in the previous portions of the passage, Jesus used a common word that would be easily understood by his listeners.  Here are some of the other New Testament examples:

“All these things I will give”,  Matthew 4:9

“Give to him who asks of you”, Matthew 5:42

“Freely you received, freely give.”  Matthew 10:8

“He gave to them”, Matthew 26:48

“To you has been given”, Mark 4:11

“For what will a man give”, Mark 8:37

“To give to his people”, Luke 1:77

“And Jesus gave him back to his mother.”  Luke 7:15

“Give me a drink.” John 4:7

“My peace I give to you”,  John 14:27

Us/ἐγώ is a form or the primary personal pronoun egṓ, meaning I, my, me or ours.  It is used twice in this passage in Give us as well as our daily bread.[112]  It is used to make a phrase or idea very personal and intimate. It is used only 40 times in the New Testament, by  Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and Paul to express important, personal ideas.  It is used with a verb to help give the phrase force and emphasis.[113]  There are many other forms of this pronoun that could have been used.  This use is very intentional to communicate the importance and intimacy of this idea.

“whoever hears these words of Mine”, Matthew 7:26

“even the least of them, you did it to Me.”, Matthew 25:40

“whatever I have”, Mark 7:11

“for a friend of mine”, Luke 11:6

“I myself have seen”, John 1:34

“I myself with judge”, Acts 7:7

“So, for my part, I am eager to preach”, Romans 1:15

“For I, on my part, though absent in the body,”, 1 Corinthians 5:3

“As the truth of Christ is in me”, 2 Corinthians 11:10

“although I myself might have confidence”, Philippians 3:4

“a faith of the same kind as ours”, 2 Peter 1:1

“I wrote something to the church”, 3 John 1:9

This day/σήμερον has the same contemporary meaning as the original Greek.  It refers to the immediate moment, today or this very day.[114]  It is in the present tense.

“which is alive today.”  Matthew 6:30

“So, go work today.”  Matthew 21:28

“and is to this day.”  Matthew 28:15

“Today this Scripture has been fulfilled”, Luke 4:21

“perform cures today.”  Luke 13”32

“for today, I must stay at your house.”  Luke 19:5

“If we were on trial today”, Acts 4:9

“all who hear me this day”, Acts 26:29

“Down to this very day.”, Romans 11:8

“But to this day”, 2 Corinthians 3:15

Daily/ἐπιούσιος is the descriptor for bread in the passage.  It is only used twice in the New Testament, both times only in the “Lord’s Prayer” passages in Matthew and in Luke.  It is different from other forms of the word that are used to describe repetitive tasks or work.  It refers not something that we do but something we need.  This daily is only used to refer to the bread or subsistence that is needed for nutrition and survival.  It is also in the present tense.

“Give us this day our daily bread.”, Matthew 6:11

“Give us this day our daily bread.”, Luke 11:3

Bread/ἄρτος is the final object of the phrase.  Used 97 times in the New Testament, it refers to nutritional bread or good.[115]  It is not any sort of spiritual reference.  It is practical and meant to communicate the bread or food needed for survival.  It is a “food from wheat and water mixed together.”[116]  It is also translated as loaves or a meal.

“Man shall not live by bread alone.” , Matthew 4:4

“when his son asks for a loaf, will give him a stone?”,  Matthew  7:9

“We have only five loaves and two fish.” , Matthew 14:17

“they could not even eat a meal.”, Mark 3:20

“There were five thousand men who ate the loaves.”, Mark 6:44

“For John the Baptist has come, eating no bread and drinking no wine.”, Luke       7:33

“Where are we to buy bread, so that these may eat?”, John 6:5

“he had broken the bread and eaten”, Acts 20:11

“As often as you eat this bread”, 1 Corinthians 11:26

The word analysis of this portion of the passage reveals personal, intimate ideas using a reference to the combination of common and unique words chosen by Jesus.  It refers to practical and physical nutrition.  We ask the Father to give to us what need for physical survival on a daily basis.  There past or the future, just the present. The word analysis indicates a request for our daily nutritional requirements physically, with no spiritual references.  From this modern analysis, today the meaning seems very straightforward. How the disciples would have heard the words of Jesus is our next focus.  

Historical Theology Analysis

The word analysis revealed the meaning of Jesus’ words based on their contemporary use in New Testament Israel.  The historical analysis will reveal the meaning of these words based on the context, backgrounds and education of the disciples.  The key words of this passage were used extensively in the Old Testament Torah and would have been very familiar to the disciples.          Give us used 926 times in the Old Testament, many times in a phrase of request as in this passage.[117]  It is a common verb, used many times connected to physical needs or food as in this passage.

“Give heed to my speech”, Genesis 4:23

“Give the people to me”, Genesis 14:21

“Give me my wife”, Genesis 29:21

“Give me children”, Genesis 30:1

“give me another son”, Genesis 30:24

“give your daughters to us”, Genesis 34:9

“Give us water”, Exodus 17:2

“Give us meat that we may eat.”, Numbers 11:13

Give us in found in the Old Testament at least seven times in the same context as this passage.[118]  It is used as part of a request for physical need:  rest, food, seed, water and meat.

“give us rest”, Genesis 5:29

“Give us food”, Genesis 47:15

“give us seed”, Genesis 47:19

“Give us water”, Exodus 17:2

“give us meat to eat”, Numbers 11:4

“Give us a possession among our father’s brothers.”, Numbers 31:49

The Old Testament uses of this day are a reference to a physical period of time related to an actual calendar day, the same perspective as words of Jesus.  It is used 1513 times in the Old Testament.[119] The uses are related to creation, chronological time keeping or an immediate need related time.  The creation references are known by many. Here are examples of these:

“God called the light day,” Genesis 1:5

“and there was morning, one day.”, Genesis 1:8

“and there was morning, a second day.”, Genesis 1:8

“to govern the day and the night”, Genesis 1:18

“By the seventh day”, Genesis 2:2

“Then God blessed the seventh day”, Genesis 2:3

There are also many uses for chronological time keeping.

“in the cool of the day”, Genesis 3:8

“You have driven me this day”, Genesis 4:14

“named them Man in the day when they were created”, Genesis 5:2

“on the seventeenth day of the month”, Genesis 7:11

“on the first day of the month”, Genesis 8:5

“in the very same day”, Genesis 17:26

“both in one day”, Genesis 27:45

“the day the heat consumed me”, Genesis 31:40

In the passage from Matthew, Jesus is referring to a more immediate this day.  It is a defined division of time.  There are also several parallel examples in the Old Testament with which the disciples would have been familiar.

“You have driven me this day”, Genesis 4:14

“he is the father of the Moabites to this day.”, Genesis 19:37

“the father of the sons of Ammon to this day.”, Genesis 19:38

“as it is said to this day”, Genesis 26:33

“But what can I do this day”, Genesis 31:43

“between you and me this day.”, Genesis 31:48

“Therefore, to this day”, Genesis 32:32

“that is the pillar of Rachel’s grave to this day.”, Genesis 35:20

“in the land of Egypt valid to this day”, Genesis 47:26

“all my life to this day.”, Genesis 48:15

“came upon the earth until this day.”, Exodus 10:6

“Now this day”, Exodus 12:14

“you shall observe this day”, Exodus 12:17

“Remember this day”, Exodus 13:3

“I am commanding you this day”, Exodus 34:11

“as it has been done this way”, Leviticus 8:34

“for it is on this day”, Leviticus 16:30

Daily bread also has parallel meanings in Old Testament passages.  The disciples would have clearly understood the context of time and nutrition as the words indicate.  Daily is used 39 times and always indicates a defined division of time or calendar day.  Here are some of those examples.

“Complete your work quota, your daily amount.”, Exodus 5:13

“You must not reduce your daily amount of bricks.”, Exodus 5:19

“twice as much as they gather daily.”, Exodus 16:5

“you must present daily, for seven days.”, Numbers 28:24

“she pressed him daily with her words”, Judges 16:16

“and did so according to the daily rule”, 2 Chronicles 8:13

“according to the daily rule”, 2 Chronicles 8:14

“for his daily obligations”, 2 Chronicles 31:16

As in the New Testament passage, bread also had many Old Testament passages where the word indicated a physical, nutritional item, part of the food needed regularly to survive as a human.

“You will eat bread.”, Genesis 3:19

“Salem brought out bread and wine”, Genesis 14:18

“I will bring them a piece of bread”, Genesis 18:5

“knead it and make bread cakes”, Genesis 18:6

“baked unleavened bread and they ate.”, Genesis 19:3

“rose early in the morning and took bread”, Genesis 21:14

“the bread which she had made”, Genesis 27:17

“they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs”, Exodus 12:8

“you shall eat unleavened bread”, Exodus 12:18

“into cakes of unleavened bread”, Exodus 12:39

“He gives you bread for two days”, Exodus 16:29

“cakes of leavened bread”, Leviticus 7:13

“one cake of bread mixed with oil”, Leviticus 8:26

“unleavened bread with bitter herbs”, Numbers 9:11

“you shall eat unleavened bread”, Deuteronomy 16:8

“You have not eaten bread”, Deuteronomy 29:6

While the words daily and bread are used in these parallel Old Testament passages, the two words together appear only in the two New Testament version of The Lord’s Prayer.  They are a concept introduced to us by God in his scriptures only in reference to our reliance on the Father for our daily nutritional needs.

The words used by Jesus in New Testament times had almost identical meanings to those same words the disciples would have studied as part of their Jewish upbringing and education using Old Testament/Torah references.  Jesus connected old and new clearly and effectively.  The meaning expressed by Jesus and the meaning heard by the disciples based on their culture have been examined.  The modern, contemporary applications of the passage are the next focus.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

The modern implications of this passage may seem obvious:  ask God for your daily food needs.  Many times, the most obvious answer is the best one.  There may be much more to this passage than the obvious meanings.

As the beginning of Jesus’ words in this passage proclaimed God as the almighty ruler of the universe as Our Father who is in Heaven, this part of the passage deals with the common nature of man. These verses level the playing field for all men.  All men need food.  “The rich and the poor are alike dependent upon the harvest for daily bread.”[120]  God may be all powerful but each man is powerless against hunger.  Hunger is the great equalizer.  Depending on our heavenly Father for this most basic of all needs is a good first step in a dependent relationship with him.  A child learns its dependence on it mother early in life when the pain of hunger can be silenced only by the nourishment she provides.

Jesus placed it as the first human step in the passage.  Up until this point, the passage has dealt with Our Father, his heavenly attributes and heavenly will and kingdom.  As Jesus transitioned from heavenly to earthly, he started with the most basic of all human needs.  Jesus teaches by his words and his example to be “consciously dependent upon the great God for the food that sustains” us in our daily lives.[121] Upon this basis of dependence we can begin to build our earthly relationship with God.  Being nourished daily also has spiritual implications.

We must be physically able to serve God to do so.  This petition for our daily bread is intended to allow “for the maintenance of our bodily powers in their highest condition for the service of God.”[122]  This passage also speaks to the time-focus God wishes for us.  There is no reference to a week, month, year or lifetime.  The reference is to this day.  This shows “a hint of the uncertainty of life.”[123]  We may not need any bread tomorrow.  We may not be here!  Jesus again modeled the behavior desired of man by both his words and deeds.  There is no biblical evidence that Jesus ever thought or planned ahead for his physical needs.  He truly lived this day every day, in regards to both food and shelter. “The foxes have holes and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.”  (Luke 9:58)

Jesus taught a valuable lesson of community in this passage.  He instructs his disciples to ask for our daily bread.  There was not an instruction for my daily bread.  Jesus taught the need for an individual relationship with God, supported by a community or family of other believers. He lived his ministry with twelve others around him much of the time.  He did few things by himself and when he did, it was described in scripture as an event or significant happening. We can only assume that he was surrounded by others most of the time during his ministry years.  By those actions and by these words he sets an example.  The use of our shows a constant concern for the welfare of others.  “Give me the opportunity to earn my daily bread but give all other men the same.”[124]

To seek to live in community or to focus only on the needs of today are both behaviors foreign to modern society.  We seek to be independent and well as save and invest for ourselves for a secure future or retirement.  We seek to trust ourselves.  Jesus seeks to teach us to trust the Father.  “Today is ours; tomorrow is Thine, as yesterday is Thine.”[125] This may be the goal of Jesus for his believers, but it not their nature.  But Jesus seeks that we put trust in Him and not in ourselves.  If we follow the words of Jesus, we would focus only on today, asking the Father only for the needs for today.  That requires trust. If we ask for no accumulation of nutrition or of anything else of tangible worth, then we trust that each day the Father will again provide.  “If Thou hast given us much, we will no more trust in ourselves than if we had nothing; and if we have nothing for tomorrow, we trust Thee still.”[126] To receive only for today is to trust for tomorrow, to trust another for all needs.

Jesus wishes that we seek “living in and for the present, without either forecast or retrospect.”[127]  Jesus wishes them to live as Moses did.  He was instructed to “gather a day’s portion every day.”  (Exodus 16:4)  This creates not a one way trust of man in God but a two way trust between the two.  Man takes only today and shows trust in God.  God then rewards that trust by “providing for them, one day at a time.”[128]

Jesus teaches in this passage and by his life to trust in our heavenly Father for our needs every day, one day at a time. God will provide the most basic of all needs as well as a life of fulfilment.  We must only ask him to give us those needs.

Chapter Summary

In this portion of the passage, Jesus continues the connection of Heaven and Earth from the last portion but now turns the focus towards life on Earth, versus a heavenly focus.  Using common language, he encourages his followers to ask for and depend on the Father for daily human needs, daily nutrition.

God is interested in every part of our lives.  He wants to insure we are never hungry, spiritually or physically.  The God of the entire universe may seem too powerful or almighty to care if you have food to eat, but Jesus shows that the Father is interested in just that.  He will give us our daily needs and we should depend on him for them.

Daily bread is used as a phrase using this language only twice in the entire Bible, in the two Lord’s Prayer passages.  It implies that we should depend of God daily for our needs, with little thought or worry about any future needs.  Today is what matters to Him.

In today’s world, we are always future focused.  We constantly ask ourselves the questions about the fate of our society and our personal futures.  Jesus makes it clear that our focus should be on the day we have been given.  There is no mention of tomorrow or things still to come. God wants our service and our submission to him today!  “Give us this day our daily bread!”













“And forgive us our debts,”


Key Word Analysis

καὶ  ἄφες  ἡμῖν  τὰ  ὀφειλήματα  ἡμῶν

The portion of the passage dealing with debts aligns with the “unending debt slavery” of the Israelite culture and history.[129]  The concept of debt was deeply embedded in the lives and culture of the followers of Jesus of that day.  While this was a familiar concept to his listeners, Jesus quoted a rarely used form of debt in this passage.  This phrase, and forgive us our debts, only appears in the New Testament in this one passage in this complete-phrase form.  The components of the phrase would have been very familiar separately but unique here in how Jesus put them together.

And/ καὶ begins this portion, linking this phrase to the one previous.  It is one of the most common of all linking verbs in the New Testament, used hundreds of times to join commonly themed passages.[130]  Forgive/ ἄφες is not so common.  This form of the word is used to express an action of leaving, or sending away, of physically moving from one place to another.  It is not used exclusively for the release of an obligation but also the movement of an obligation or object from one place to another.  It is an active verb, expressing an intentional act.[131]

“Then the Devil left him”, Matthew 4:11

“Immediately they left the boat”, Matthew 4:22

“leave your gift in front of the alter”, Mathew 5:24

“And forgive us our debts”, Matthew 6:12

“For if you forgive people their wrongdoing”, Matthew 6:14

“Your sins are forgiven”, Mathew 9:5

“released him and forgave him the loan”, Matthew 18:27

“we have left everything”, Mathew 19:27

“Son, your sins are forgiven”, Mark 2:5

“the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive”, Mark 2:10

“so they left the crown”, Mark 4:36

“so they left him and went away”, Mark 12:12

“Jesus said “Leave her alone””, Mark 14:6

“Your sins are forgiven”, Luke 7:48

Forgive/ ἄφες  applies not just to debts/sins or debts/money but to anything that should be left, sent away or pushed away.  The object of the verb, debts, was dealt with in the same way as anything that needed to be left behind, whether a place, a person, a monetary obligation or a sin.  Jesus tells us here to ask God to send from our lives anything that is not of his kingdom.  This verb implies not just debts or sins, but anything, place or person that should not be in our lives as we seek to follow his will.  We are asking God in this passage to push from our lives all but Him!

Us/ ἡμῖν and our/ ἡμῶν are common forms of the same Greek word indicating the same plural pronoun known to English speakers.  Debts/ ὀφειλήματα is anything but common, used only twice in all of the New Testament.[132]  In our focus passage and in Romans, it refers to moral offense or a fault morally owed.[133]  In this first appearance of this word in the New Testament, Jesus indicates that these debts are unique in the life of the believer.  These are not financial or tangible obligations but moral offenses that need the forgiveness or excusing of a greater power.  There are moral offenses that need to be  pushed away from the life of the believer.

Jesus gives his followers in this phrase one that is completely unique in his ministry.  He would never before or after use this combination of words in a sentence.  The debt-object of the phrase is a completely unique word.  This is a part of the key passage intended to refer to a completely unique aspect of the life of a believer. He was telling them something different in this passage.

Historical Theology Analysis

An examination of the two key words in this passage, debt and forgive, will now be presented from an historical theology perspective.  The word combination of this phrase was unique to the disciples while their perspective on the key words would have been based on their training and experiences.  Understanding the historical perspective will give deeper insights into the passage.

Forgive is an action verb used in the Old Testament/Torah to express activity between people or people and God.  It is used to both express an actual activity or a desired activity.

“Please forgive, I beg you.”,  Genesis 50:17

“please forgive my sin only this once”, Exodus 10:17

“if you will, forgive their sin”, Exodus 32:32

“the Lord will forgive her”, Numbers 30:8

“the Lord will forgive her”, Numbers 30:12

“Forgive Your people Israel”, Deuteronomy 21:8

“The Lord shall never be willing to forgive him”, Deuteronomy 29:20

“He will not forgive your transgression”, Joshua 24:19

“Please forgive the transgression”, 1 Samuel 25:28

“hear and forgive”, 1 Kings 8:30

“forgive the sin of Your people Israel”, 1 Kings 8:34

“forgive the sin of Your servants”, 1 Kings 8:36

“forgive and act”, 1 Kings 8:39

“the Lord would not forgive”, 2 Kings 24:4

“hear and forgive”, 2 Chronicles 6:21

“forgive the sin”, 2 Chronicles 6:25

“I will hear from Heaven, will forgive their sin”, 2 Chronicles 7:14

“forgive all my sins”, Psalms 25:18

“ready to forgive”, Psalms 86:5

“Do not forgive their iniquity.”, Jeremiah 18:23

“O Lord, forgive!”, Daniel 9:19

“I would ever forgive them.”, Hosea 1:6

The forgiveness of a sin or debt, either requested or declared was a common Old Testament/Torah concept.  The Torah writers described the requests of forgiveness, the observation of forgiveness and the declaration of forgiveness.  This would have been a familiar and easily understood concept by the listeners of Jesus that day.

Debt or debts was also a familiar concept, but one much more deeply woven into Jewish culture.  To a Jew, debt was anything owed to another person such as goods, property or money.[134]  Biblically, righteous living is something one owes to God. Theologically, being in sin can be described as being in debt.

The Old Testament teaches the practice of debt.

“If there is a poor man with you, one of your brothers, in any of your towns in your land which the Lord your God is giving you, you should not harden your heart, nor close your hand from your poor brother, but you shall freely open your hand to him, and shall generously lend him sufficient for his need in whatever he lacks.”  Deuteronomy 15:7


However, it does not allow for the charging of interest, except for those outside of the believer’s community.

“He who increases his wealth by interest and usury, gathers it for him who is gracious to the poor.”  Proverbs 28:8


There is also clear guidance against the accumulation of debt.  It may be taken for a short term need, but is not to be held long term or allowed to build up.  Every seven years, all debts were erased to prevent the accumulation of these obligations.  Debt should not be allowed to accumulate over an extended time.

“At the end of every seven years you shall grant a remission of debts.  This is the manner of remission:  every creditor shall release what he has loaned to his neighbor; he shall not exact it of his neighbor and his brother, because the Lord’s remission has been proclaimed.”  Deuteronomy 15:1-2.


This aspect of Jewish life was very different than their history.  “Earlier legal traditions in Mesopotamia allowed for the voluntary sale of one’s dependents, whether offspring or a spouse, to creditors” to pay long term debt.[135]  Jews in the days of Jesus allowed for a complete overall forgiveness of all debt every seven years avoiding any long term build up.  To be in debt was completely acceptable.  To get out of debt, other than by repayment, required a public process that was humiliating. The “burning of debt records” was a public act to insure all knew of the release of that debt.[136]  The disciples would have understood the concept of debt and accepted that it could and should be forgiven.

Old Testament/Torah teaching was also clear that one could be a slave to their debts or helping others go into debt and this should be avoided.

“Do not be among those who give pledges, among those who become guarantors for debts.”  Proverbs 22:26

“Everyone who was in distress and everyone who was in debt…”, 1 Samuel 22:2

“The one who despises the word will be in debt to it.”, Proverbs 13:13


The listeners of Jesus that day would have had Old Testament/Torah perspective of both forgive and debts.  Forgiveness would come from the one who held the obligation.  The release or forgiveness of debts was an action sought by every Jew.  Debt may have been a normal part of Jewish life but the pursuit of forgiveness was also the norm.  The disciples had a clear image of the message Jesus was giving.  How we apply this portion of the passage is the real question for the modern day believer to answer.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

Jesus puts the request to The Father for forgiveness of debts right behind the request for daily food and nutrition.  He presented it as something that should be as natural to the believer as eating lunch!  We eat daily, gain bodily fuel for our activities, then move on to that day’s events to then start again tomorrow, ready for a new day.  We don’t look back on the previous day’s meals and evaluate them or their worthiness.  Yet our approach to our spiritual debts or sins is so very different.  Jesus presented here as approach that is far different than “the obsession we have with our past sins” what can be a major obstacle in our spiritual growth.[137]  What Jesus proposes is very unlike the “straightjacket” that many of us allow sin to become.[138]

The forgiveness of sins or shortcomings is a Godly act, “a divine prerogative reserved exclusively to God.”[139]  He carries away our debts and sins to never be seen again.  He “removes that straightjacket of debilitating guilt that the ego forces us to wear.”[140]  He allows us to start over every single day. The act of asking for forgiveness itself is also an act of obedience, following the words of Jesus in this passage.

The act of asking forgiveness is an ongoing, lifetime endeavor.  Jesus illustrates by asking “for our daily bread and forgive us our debts”, both daily tasks.  If the believer is forgiven of all existing sin at the time of conversion, perhaps the sins of their remaining life could be left to be dealt in our eternal home.  If a believer could live with the darkness of ongoing sin, asking for daily forgiveness would be unnecessary.  But sin is “a darkness, in which the very light in us is darkness, because passion has extinguished it.”[141] Those who choose to follow Jesus choose to live in light, not darkness!  “If we say that we have fellowship with Him and yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth;”  (1 John 1:6)  Just as we need daily bread and just as the new light of the sun shines every day, the forgiveness of sin can also be a daily event in the life of a believer.

Asking for forgiveness in the passage is implied indirectly by the connection to daily bread.  But Jesus also spoke of multiple instances of forgiveness in the life of a believer in other passages.  “Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me?  Up to seven times?  Jesus answered, “I tell you, not seven times, but seventy times seven.”  (Mathew 18:21-22).  Clearly, the forgiveness of sin is not a singular occurrence in the life of a believer.           Jesus instructs the believer in this passage to seek the forgiveness or debt or sin as a daily occurrence.  Only God can give this forgiveness.  The focus of this forgiveness should now be defined.  He speaks of a debt or of sins.  His words go far beyond a financial debt, but “involves a moral dimension as well, i.e. it refers to actions regarded by God as against his will.”[142]  In modern times, we have no forgiveness of debts or general release of obligations every seven years as did the Jews of that day.  Here Jesus is clearly also speaking to both Gentiles of his day and to modern believers that would follow him centuries later.  He speaks to debts or sins or trespasses as shortcomings in our attitude or behavior toward God and toward others.  In this passage, Jesus does not suggest we ask The Father for forgiveness, but commands it.  “All authority on heaven and on earth has been given to me.”  (Mathew 18:18)  When Jesus said pray then this way he was instructing and commanding.

Jesus also intends that his believers live a successful life and gives them this passage as one path to that success; a way to pray and to live.  To live successfully and free of any obligation to anyone but God is his intention for them and for us.  Any “indebtedness twists our good relationships into forces of destruction.”[143]  Gaining relief for sin or debt by just asking for it seems unlikely or even impossible.  “Yet salvation is the art of the impossible.”[144]  We must jus believe in the process.  The Apostle’s Creed states that “I believe in the forgiveness of sins.”[145]  We show that belief in action by asking for that forgiveness.  We do so both because Jesus commanded it in this passage and because it is our only path to true success and freedom.

Chapter Summary

Jesus spoke to his believers in this passage on the familiar subject of debts, obligations or shortcomings.  As is today, this is a familiar concept to the listener or reader of the passage.  Jesus commands his followers to ask The Father to forgive or push away any obligations to the secular world or any shortcomings in spiritual life. While a familiar concept, Jesus used a combination of words here that were completely unique to his teachings.  He wishes us to daily work to push out of our lives anything that holds us to or reminds us of our lives before him.

Since the time context of the previous passage was daily and it was connected to this passage in the language used, we can take this as an everyday commandment.  While Jews of Jesus day would work to be debt free, there was an every seven year occasion of debt forgiveness.  It was public and not desired by any good Jew who worked to pay his own way in the world.  Jesus here offers the free and simple forgiveness of debts daily and privately with our Heavenly Father.  This pushing away of debt is presented in the passage as just as necessary for human life as the intake of nutrition on a daily basis.  He truly offers us the forgiveness of our shortcomings and mistakes as easily as eating a meal.  We need only ask.

While requesting this forgiveness is simple and commanded by Jesus to be done on a daily basis, it has a connecting phrase or action required to complete the process.  We must give this same blessing to anyone who has debt against us.  That is the subject of the next chapter.














“as we also have forgiven our debtors.”


Key Word Analysis

ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν

These words end one of the most interesting and often discussed phrases of the passage.  The “and forgive-as we” petition has been called the “terrible petition” of the Lord’s Prayer.[146] It is a continuation of the previous phrase and uses much of the same language while changing the ownership of the needed action.

The words paint a clear picture, using common language of the day.  As/ὡς connects the two phrases, a common word used almost a thousand times in the Greek New Testament indicating when, like, even, unless, as soon as, even as or after that.[147] It connects two ideas to create one.

“When you pray, you are not to be like the hypocrites”, Mathew 6:5

“Solomon in all his glory clothed himself like one of these.”  Matthew 6:29

“it was restored to normal, like the other.”  Matthew 12:13

“unless you are converted and become like the children”, Matthew 18:3

“It is like a mustard seed”, Mark 4:31

“Mary stayed with her about three months then returned to her home.”  Luke 1:56

“For while you are going”, Luke 12:58

“When he approached Bethphage and Bethany”, Luke 19:29

The two ideas or actions connected by this word are dependent on each other for their meaning.  One is not complete without the other.

We/ἡμεῖς is a personal pronoun used only forty times in the New Testament.[148]  It shows a consistency in the passage as it is the same word used in the first phrase, Our Father. It means our, mine, I, my, myself, me or we.  Jesus used it to communicate thoughts and actions around himself, the Heavenly Father or Israel as a people.  Its use here gives a very personal tone to this part of the passage, pulling Jesus and his believers close together in applying the same actions to their lives.

“Our Father”, Matthew 6:9

“everyone who hears these words of Mine”, Matthew 7:24

“Everyone who hears these words of Mine”, Matthew 7:26

“I myself”, Luke 9:9

“for a friend of mine”, Luke 11:6

“I myself and working”, John 5:17

“I myself will raise him up the last day”, John 6:40

“then you are truly disciples of mine”, John 8:31

“I have sent them myself”, Acts 10:10

“the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours.”, I Corinthians 1:2

The next three words are repeated identically from the first part of our two part passage. Also/καὶ, have forgiven/ἀφήκαμεν and our/ἐγώ are the same words used in And forgive us our debts. The language continues to create one idea or action from the two passages.  The last word of the second part is a new word to the passage.

The last word, debtor/ὀφειλέταις is used only seven times in the New Testament to communicate one who owes another, identical to the contemporary use of the word.[149]  It can refer to a literal or moral debt. It does not speak to the past but indicates a current, unpaid obligation.

“one who owed him ten thousand talents”, Matthew 18:24

“worse culprits than all the men”, Luke 13:4

“I am under obligation”, Romans 1:14

“we are under obligation”, Romans 8:12

“they are indebted to them”, Romans 15:27

“he is under obligation”, Galatians 5:3

The word choices of Jesus blended the two part passage into one powerful theme in And forgive us our debts as we also have forgiven our debtors.  The historical context of that day for these words, or how the disciples would have heard these phrases will now be examined.

Historical Theology Analysis

As most of the language is identical to the first part of this passage on debt and debtors, the analysis from an historical perspective is also the same, covered in the previous chapter.  Only two words are unique to the second part of the passage, as and debtor.  The disciples perspective on the remainder of as we also have forgiven our debtors would have been the same as in And forgive us our debts.

As or As-we was a common thought, used several thousand times in the Old Testament, connecting two actions or thoughts.  The disciples would have heard it as a phrase connecting the two parts of this passage just as this phrase had been used in many Old Testament examples.

“just as we have not touched you”, Genesis 26:29

“as we did to Shiloh”, Deuteronomy 3:6

“Just as we obeyed Moses in all things”, Joshua 1:17

“as we have sworn to each other”, 1 Samuel 40:22

“As we have hoped in you”, Psalms 33:22

“As we have heard, so we have seen”, Psalms 48:8

The historical concept of connecting two actions or thoughts to achieve a goal would have been familiar and comfortable to the disciples that day.  The context of debtor would have been a bit less common or comfortable.

While the Old Testament deals in detail with the concept of debt, it has less to say about debtors.  The overall context is to avoid this status, to avoid debt. Most of the teachings and discussions are about the debt itself and the resolution of it.  The closest Hebrew form of debtor only appears twice in Old Testament teachings.

“And the people will be like a priest, and the servant like his master, the maid like her mistress, the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the debtor.”  Isaiah 24:2.

“if a man does not repress anyone, but restores to the debtor his pledge”, Ezekiel 18:7.


The Old Testament refers to the debtor indirectly many times.  The debtor delivers a pledge in Deuteronomy 24:10.  Both the debtor and the creditor seemed to be cursed in some examples.

“I have not lent, nor have men lent money to me, yet everyone curses me.”  Jeremiah 15:10


To avoid being either a debtor or creditor was the goal of a good Jew in that day.  Both sides of that relationship invited conflict.  The words of Jesus to both ask for and give forgiveness at the same time would have been easily understood by his listeners.  To avoid the conflicts with The Father, first the disciples must forgive others.  This implication that receiving God’s forgiveness was dependent on the believers giving forgiveness to others would have been a new idea to those listeners.  Jesus was teaching that to receive his forgiveness, an action on the part of the believer was necessary at the very same time or in advance. This is not a one way, from God only, transaction. This would have been new theology at that time.  It has the same implications then and now as the next section will explore.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

This part of the passage does not deal only with receiving the mercy or grace of God but puts our fate solely in our own hands.  Here the believer asks God to deal with him or her exactly as he deals with others.  Our forgiveness of others is directly related to God’s forgiveness of us.  In praying or following the passage, we are asking God to treat us the way we treat others.

Charles Spurgeon put it plainly.  “Unless you have forgiven others, you read your own death warrant when you repeat the Lord’s Prayer.”[150]  To receive this forgiveness, we must first forgive. If we chose not to obey, we condemn ourselves to spiritual death. One of John Wesley’s most famous quotes came when a great leader of his day, General Oglethorpe said to him “I never forgive.”  Wesley famously replied, “Then I hope, sir, you never sin.”[151]

Jesus is clear in this passage and in those that follow.

“For if you forgive others for their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.”  (Mathew 6:14-15


This portion of the passage has very different application than prior portion.  While give us this day our daily bread states a complete dependence on God that is to be renewed daily, as we forgive our debtors puts the obligation of the shoulders of the believer, not on The Father.  While God takes responsibility for our bodily needs if we ask him, He puts the responsibility for the cleaning of our soul on us.  He commits to insure we are bodily fed as his unconditional blessing to us, but to be continually forgiven of new sins requires action on our part.  “As bread is the first need of the body, so forgiveness for the soul.”[152]  While the blood of Jesus has given us access to forgiveness, “only what is really confessed is really forgiven.”[153]  We must confess our sins as/ὡς forgive others.  To fail to do so is the sign the personal death warrant Spurgeon described.

And, just as we must eat daily, we must confess and forgive daily as well.  The words of Jesus linked bread and forgiveness to this day.  This was not the only time Jesus spoke of forgiveness and reconciliation in his ministry.  He did it many times.

“Then Peter came and said to Him, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me and I forgive him?  Up to seven times?”  Jesus said to him, “I do not say to you, up to seven time, but up to seventy times seven.”  (Matthew 19:7)


Just as there is no limit to our lifetime of need for bread, there is no limit to our need for forgiveness or of the need that we forgive others.  It is not an action, but a way of life.  “As many times as it takes, we are to forgive!”[154]  Jesus is calling us to forgive and to be forgiven, as often as is necessary.

This is not just an aspect of Christian living, but of living as a human being on this planet.  “We were created to be in relationship with God and with our fellow human beings.”[155] Unresolved conflict, spiritually known as sin and humanly known as hurt or distrust, destroys or prevents the building of relationships.  We need to be at peace with God and with each other.

“Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making an appeal through us;  we beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.  He made him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so thet we might become the righteousness of God in Him.”  (2 Corinthians 5:17)


To fulfil our goal of being Christ-like and to bring him to others, we must be at peace both with him and with others.  And our lives must be full of forgiveness for two additional reasons.  First, Jesus forgave.  Second, our forgiveness from God depends on our forgiveness to others as the passage indicates.


Chapter Summary

The beginning thesis of this work is that the central passage is not about prayer, but about life.

“This work will present the idea of applying this passage not just to prayer, but for the challenge of successfully living daily as a Christian.  The Lord’s Prayer is not just about prayer, but also a “summary of Jesus’ priorities” for Christian living.”


No part of the passage more clearly illustrates this thesis.  Just as we need ongoing nourishment to thrive or even to survive, we need forgiveness.  To get that ongoing forgiveness we must forgive others in the same manner. Forgiving another is not something you can do quietly to yourself as in a prayer.  It is an act that requires communication to that person in an action.  It is not prayer-like but life-like.

This portion of the passage also creates a requirement for Christian living that is not dependent only on The Father.  We must create this life-of-forgiving-others in our daily walk. It does not come to us through the grace of God but through our intentional application of that grace to others.

This portion of the key passage continues to show the prayer and life model that Jesus didn’t just preach but lived. His words here offer us “direct insight into the kinn of prioritizing” necessary for the Christ-like human life.[156]  It is our role to accept and follow it all, both the portions that call believers to follow and seek the grace and mercy of God and those portions that outline our personal responsibilities in that process.

The believer who prays and seeks to live the words of Jesus does so at their own risk.  This portion of the passage asks The Father to forgive us as we or only if we forgive others.  The believer must be aware of the words they seek to pray and live. These are not casual words or casual objectives for a Christian life. The next portion of the passage shifts back to requests to The Father.  These depend entirely on his grace and not the believer’s life or actions.


























“And do not lead us into temptation,”


Key Word Analysis

καὶ  μὴ  εἰσενέγκῃς  ἡμᾶς  εἰς  πειρασμόν

The passage up to this point has dealt with the past and the present.  This phrase takes the believer into the future.  And like the portion before it, it has an and/but conditional aspect similar to the and/as-we phrase used previously.  The language indicates continuing action through the life of the believer.  The prayer is not intended to be applied to just one moment in time but continuously.

And/καὶ begins the phrase with one of the most common primary participles in the New Testament, used thousands of times in biblical writing and previously in this passage.[157]  It is intended to connect the current with the previous phrase.

Do Not/μὴ is also relatively common but has different meanings.  It can be negative or positive and used to communicate do not, cannot, unless, only or other than.  Its meaning depends on the sentence in which it is used.

“The bridegroom cannot morn”, Matthew 9:15

“Do not fear those who kill the body”, Matthew 10:28

“We have only five loaves and two fish.”  Matthew 14:17

“I say to you, unless you are converted”, Matthew 18:3

“let no man separate”, Matthew 19:6

“for nothing is hidden, except to be revealed”, Mark 4:22

“you shall be silent and unable to speak”, Luke 1:20

“I tell you no, but unless you repent”, Luke 13:3

“He cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb”, John 3:4

“No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent me draws them”, John 6:44

Lead/εἰσενέγκῃς is the least common word in this phrase, used only eight times in the New Testament.[158]  It is used to communicate bring, bring in, carry in or lead others. In five of the eight examples, it is use used to describe the physical movement of a person or object.  The object being moved or carried, tangible or intangible is presented as real and present, not spiritual or imagined.

“they were trying to bring him in”, Luke 5:18

“but not finding any way to bring him in”, Luke 5:19

“lead us not into temptation”, Luke 11:4

“When they bring you before the synagogues”, Luke 12:11

“For you are bringing some strange things to our ears”, Acts 17:20

“For we have brought nothing into the world”, 1 Timothy 6:7

“whose blood is brought into the holy place”, Hebrews 13:11

Us/ἡμᾶς is the object of the lead verb in these verses.  It is a first person pronoun in this case used in the plural sense. This form of the word is commonly translated as I, my or me.  Jesus used this word commonly when referring to his ministry or work.

“everyone who hears these words of Mine.”, Matthew 7:24

“everyone who hears these words of Mine.”, Matthew 7:26

“these two sons of Mine,”,  Matthew 20:21

“for a friend of mine has come to me”, Luke 11:6

“But these enemies of mine”, Luke 19:27

“There is a danger that this trade of ours”, Acts 19:27

“the sufferings of Christ are ours”, 2 Corinthians 1:5

This form of us is a very collective, possessive word.  It refers to a close group with common goals and interests.  Into/εἰς is the primary preposition connecting the people and the action, us and temptation.  It is a very common form of the word and used over a thousand times in the New Testament.[159]

Temptation/πειρασμόν ends this phrase.  It is a far from common word, used only twenty one times in the New Testament.  In this form it refers to a trial or trials, an enticement to sin.  It can be a temptation of God or of man.

“Keep watching and praying that you may not come into temptation.” Mathew 26:41

“When the devil finished every temptation”, Luke 4:13

“in time of temptation”, Luke 8:13

“who have stood by me in my trials”, Luke 22:28

“with tears and with trials”, Acts 20:19

The words of this phrase translate today almost exactly as they did in the time of Jesus.  The believer is asking The Father to protect from trial and temptation by attempting to walk in The Father’s way or will.  The perspective of the disciples on these words is our next examination.

Historical Theology Analysis

This portion of the passage had very limited historical perspective or significance to the disciples.  The theology of being led to temptation was largely a New Testament concept from a biblical perspective.  The phrase lead us as used in this passage only appeared once in the Old Testament.

“Then he said to him, “If your presence does not go with us, do not lead us up  here.”  Exodus 33:15


While lead us has this very limited reference, there is no reference in Hebrew Old Testament for the word temptation.  There are several examples of the concept but no exact Old Testament matching word or phrase to the words of Jesus on this day.  The first example of temptation in the Old Testament may be one of the best known of all biblical accounts.


“Now the serpent was more crafty than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, “Indeed, has God said, ‘You shall not eat from [a]any tree of the garden’?”  The woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; but from the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat from it or touch it, or you will die.’”  The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die!  For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”  When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loin coverings.”  Genesis 3:1-7

This familiar biblical account of the serpent’s temptation of Adam and Eve served as an example of the temptation of a believer from a strong outside influence.  The passage indicates that we should ask our Heavenly Father to help us avoid such situations altogether.  Temptation does not come from God but from Satan.[160]  The concept of asking God for protection from harm would have been a familiar one to any Jew of that day and this Old Testament reference would have given them clear historical perspective.

There were examples of God giving Satan permission to temp a follower.

“Then the Lord said to Satan, “Behold, all that he has is in your power , only do not put forth your hand on him.” So Satan departed from the presence of the Lord.”    Job 1:12

So the Lord said to Satan, “Behold, he is in your power, only spare his life.”   Job 2:6


God had given Satan permission to temp one of his best.  That permission came with the limitation that Job’s life could not be taken.  It is logical to believe that God could also have denied Satan that permission. This would have been part of the historical perspective of the disciples that would lead them to take notice of the words of Jesus instructing them to ask God to also protect them from temptations.

It is possible that the disciples may have assumed God would protect them from temptation naturally and without requesting it.

“Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me.”  (Psalm 23:4)


“Here is the core of this beautiful psalm about God’s leadership” of his believers.[161] The indication that God protects believers from temptation except where He has given Satan permission blends the writing of David with the words of Jesus that day.  Jesus words indicated that now believers must request the protection of The Father from temptation in this new life based on a direct relationship with God through Jesus.  This may have been a new concept.  While new to them, this is possibly one part of the prayer passage the disciples would have easily accepted and adopted.  By asking for protection, the protection given their ancestors would be granted to them as well.  How the contemporary believer might do the same is the next focus.









Contemporary Theology Analysis

This work examines each portion of the key passage in an attempt to best understand the entire work.  This phrase of the passage can be best understood as a guide for contemporary living by connecting it to previous parts of the passage.

“Give us this day our daily bread


Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors


Do not lead us into temptation”

Jesus connected daily nourishment of the body, daily cleansing of the heart and the possibility of future sin all into one thought.  The body and the soul, present and future, are all vital to everyday Christian living.  They are connected.  God will provide fuel for the body, current cleansing of the heart and future protection if we asked Him. He will also provide daily protection from sin’s temptations if we ask.

Jesus may also be indicating that temptation in the life of the believer is not likely from God.  Job was a notable exception.  Few of us have the standing with God as did Job.  If we are walking with God, when we are tempted it is not from him.  Humans will be tempted by the world.   “Jesus knew well from his own experiences in the wilderness after his baptism, that temptation was pare of being human.”[162]  In the daily Christian walk, temptation is not Godly but worldly.

God will nourish us physically, cleanse us spiritually and protect us from temptation if we walk in His ways.  It is the power of God that allows this process.  “You have no power of your own.”[163]  Satan, using the world, can destroy a person at will, if allowed to do so by God.  Part of the Christian process is to seek God’s protection from the forces of worldly temptation.  Avoiding those temptations is a goal of the believer.

The scripture calls for God to “lead us not into temptation”.  It does not cover when we go there on our own.  The believer who takes himself into temptation situations and at the same time prays the prayer every day is “a hypocrite without a mask”.[164]  The believer must seek to keep his own walk away from temptation as well as seeking to avoid leading others there as well.

This may seem a natural part of the walk of the believer and that God would automatically protect us from the world.  He seeks to do so but we must walk in his way to insure this occurs.  “While God does not will temptation, he may permit it.”[165]  If we seek his protection, through our intentions and our daily walk, he will protect us from being overcome by the world.

“No temptation has overtaken you, but such as is common to man;  and God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will provide the way of escape also, so that you will be able to endure it.”  (1 Corinthians 10:13)


While this portion of the passage, a guide for prayer and life, continues on from previous portions and seems a natural part of the Christian life, the question of its necessity is indicated.  Jesus leads the believer to ask for protection from temptation not for protection from sin.  To be protected from sin would seem to be the logical end result, but Jesus did not encourage his believers to as for this protection.

“All of Jesus’s prayer asks God to give us the grace to send our lives in the right direction.  None of it is a promise.”[166]  We will sin.  It is our nature.  It is not possible that we will not sin. Sin is real in the life of the believer. To deny this fact is “non-reality or illusion.”[167]  To seek to be like The Father is to seek to be hallowed, a word from the early phrase of this passage. Sin is unholy, or un-hallowed.  To avoid it is to embrace the grace of God.  Grace and law start to bridge at this point, one becoming more important than the other.

“law is not made for a righteous person, but for those who are lawless and rebellious, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane,”  (1 Timothy 1:9)


God’s grace allows us to avoid sin by asking God’s protection from its temptation.  But, as Jesus indicated, we must ask.  And we must ask daily based on the perspective of the passage.  A daily walk is just that, daily.  Give us this day begins this portion of the passage for Christian living and sets the time perspective for the believer.

Chapter Summary

This phrase of the passage continues to process of daily nutrition of the body and soul started in the previous versus and adds the element of future temptation.  While largely a New Testament concept, temptation was well known to the disciples from the original story of Adam and Eve.

We may only be tempted by the world if God allows it or we chose to put ourselves in circumstances likely to lead to this circumstance.  Jesus indicates that just as God will nourish us physically and spiritually on a daily basis, he will also protect us from outside temptations in the same way if we seek his protections.

Just as God’s grace promises to care for us physically and spiritually it promises to protect us from potential harm.  This verse, and lead us not into temptation completes the most practical and easily applicable portion of the passage.  We must only ask The Father for what Jesus promised his disciples that day.  The last request of the believer to The Father is the next portion of this work.























“but deliver us from evil.”


Key Word Analysis

ἀλλὰ  ῥῦσαι  ἡμᾶς  ἀπὸ  τοῦ  πονηροῦ

This phrase in the passage ends the requests or asks of The Father by the believer.  It is connected to the previous phrase asking that we not be lead into temptation but also delivered from the consequences of that temptation if it occurs.  The two phrases are not connected by and.  The use of but/ἀλλὰ in connecting these two phrases is a significant word choice by Jesus.

But/ἀλλὰ is the neuter form λλος which translates as another.[168] It is used to connect two words or phrases that are logically understood together or when a second phrase is intended to add on to the previous one.  In today’s English it would be understood as yet, besides, on the contrary, however or certainly.  It is used to connect two actions that may or not be connected but are logically understood together.  One is not necessary for the other to occur.

“Even though all may fall away, yet I will not.”  Mark 14:29

“besides, even the dogs were coming”, Luke 16:21

“on the contrary, He leads the people astray.”  John 7:12

“However, we know where is man is from”, John 7:27

“yet you seek to kill Me”, John 8:37

“however, the people held them in high esteem.”  Acts 5:13

“certainly, we shall also be in the likeness of his resurrection.”  Romans 6:5

The connection of this phrase and the one previous by but/ἀλλὰ implies that Jesus understood that even if his listeners were protected against being led into temptation by The Father, other evils or temptations would come their way.  The next words He chose asks for rescue from those temptations.

Deliver/ῥῦσαι us/ἡμᾶς  is the last petition or plea of the passage.  Luther described it as the seventh or final one.[169]  It is simply translated today as to aid in escape.[170]  “Help us escape evil” would be a contemporary translation.  There are multiple examples of its use in the New Testament.

“Let God rescue him now”, Matthew 27:43

“being rescued from the hand of our enemies.”  Luke 1:74

“The Deliverer will come.”  Romans 11:26

“that I may be rescued”, Romans 15:31

“who delivered us from so great a peril of death”, 2 Corinthians 1:10

“The Lord will rese rescue me”, 2 Timothy 4:18

Us/ ἡμᾶς is the same form of the primary pronoun used throughout the passage. Its use continues to bond Jesus, his disciples and listeners together as one unit.  Its use in the final petition of the prayer completes the consistency that started with give us this day our daily bread, moving through debts, temptation and now evil.  In his language as in his life, Jesus sought to help his disciples learn to help and support each other in part by seeing each other equally in their pursuit of a Godly life.  In this verse, Jesus uses the plural version of the pronoun.  The singular version of us/ ἡμᾶς is the form that is likely the most familiar to the modern biblical scholar. It translates as I, me, mine or myself.[171]

“who hears these words of mine”, Matthew 7:24

“these two sons of mine”, Matthew 20:21

“these brothers of Mine”, Matthew 25:40

“the inheritance will be ours!”  Mark 12:7

“for a friend of mine”, Luke 11:6

“I myself have seen”, John 1:34

“you are truly disciples of Mine.”  John 8:31

This word choice clearly shows that Jesus sees himself and the disciples together in the eyes of God.  They are earthly brothers and sons of the same Father. He would also seek deliverance from evil later in his earthly ministry.  He would seek to be separated from evil, indicated by his use of from/ἀπὸ as the preposition connecting us and evil.  From/ἀπὸ is used to indicate separation of one thing from another, of us and evil.

Evil/πονηροῦ translates today as bad, full of labors, hardships or of a bad nature.[172]  It can be something given, received or a deliberate act.

“and falsely say all kinds of evil”, Matthew 5:11

“anything beyond these is of evil.”  Matthew 5:37

“But if your eye is bad”, Matthew 6:23

“but the bad tree bears bad”, Mathew 7:17

“Why are you thinking evil in your hearts?”  Matthew 9:4

“And these evil things”, Mark 7:23

“scorn your name as evil”, Luke 6:22

“that its deeds are evil”, John7:7

“and the evil spirits went out”, Acts 19:12

“and the evil spirit answered and said to them”, Acts 19:15

Evil in this use is a general concept, used to indicate a variety of circumstances a believer could experience.  It could be spiritually evil or just an undesired circumstance.  It be an unusual circumstance or an everyday occurrence, a large or a small issue.

Jesus use of words in their contemporary language would have communicated a clear and simple concept.  How the disciples understood his words based on their individual contexts will be our next focus.

Historical Theology Analysis

To be delivered by God from trials or troubles would have been a familiar concept to the disciples.   The word combination of this passage is completely unique in scripture.  But deliver as a word combination is found only in this passage, no other place in all of scripture.  Jesus connected the previous portion on temptation to this part on deliverance in a completely unique way.  While putting temptation and evil together directly may have been unique from a language perspective, the concept of deliverance by God was very familiar.

“deliver him into your hand”, Deuteronomy 2:30

“the Lord your God will deliver them”, Deuteronomy 7:23

“will you deliver him?”, Judges 6:31

“deliver up the men”, Judges 20:13

“How can this one deliver us?” 1 Samuel 10:27

“but now deliver us form the hands of our enemies”, 1 Samuel 12:10

“ but God did not deliver him”, 1 Samuel 23:14

“He might deliver them”, 2 Chronicles 25:20

“The righteous of the upright will deliver them”, Proverbs 11:6

“Deliver me, for you are my god.” Isaiah 44:17

“who can deliver you out of my hands?”  Daniel 3:15

To be delivered by God from an enemy or other negative force was common in scripture.  This passage called on God to deliver us, plural, not singular.  It showed the sense of community Jesus sought to communicate.  This was also very familiar to the disciples.

“deliver us into the hand of the Amorites”, Deuteronomy 1:27

“deliver us this day.”  Judges 10:15

“deliver us from the power of our enemies.”  1 Samuel 4:8

“Who shall deliver us”, 1 Samuel 4:8

“How can this one deliver us?”  1 Samuel 10:27

“if there is no one to deliver us”, 1 Samuel 11:3

“The Lord will surely deliver us”, 2 Kings 18:30

“And gather us and deliver us”, 1 Chronicles 16:35

“You will hear and deliver us.”  2 Chronicles 20:9

“And deliver us and forgive our sins”, Psalm 79:9

“The Lord will surely deliver us.”  Isaiah 36:15

“O Lord our God, deliver us”, Isaiah 37:20

.           The disciples were familiar with being delivered by God, being delivered as a people not just as individuals and they were also familiar with God helping separate them from evil.

“kept his servant from evil”, 1 Samuel 25:39

“turning away from evil”, Job 1:1

“fearing God and turning away from evil.”  Job 1:8

“Keep your tongue from evil.”  Psalm 34:13

“Depart from evil and do good.”  Psalm 34:14

“Fear the Lord and turn away from evil.”  Proverbs 3:7

“taken away from evil.”  Isaiah 57:1

“Wash your heart from evil, O Jerusalem.”  Jeremiah 4:14

But deliver us from evil was a historical and cultural familiar concept and phrase to the listeners of Jesus that day.  The combination of words was unique in some ways but the phrase would have been very familiar and comfortable to the disciples.  This last petition of the passage may have been the one most comfortable and most welcomed.  Israel had long sought God’s deliverance from the world.  These last words would have possibly fulfilled much of what the disciples wished Jesus would bring to their lives at that time. The modern application of this phrase is the next focus.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

In this request of The Father in this passage, Jesus changes the focus.  The focus previously was around The Father, Heaven or earthly challenges.  The disciples were to acknowledge God the Father and his power, Heaven’s connection to Earth and ask that the same Father sustain them in this world.  In this final petition, the focus of Jesus moves to the unheavenly and unearthly powers, those of evil.

Jesus acknowledges the presence of evil in the world and gives his followers a way to combat it.  He encourages them to not only pray for the avoidance of temptation but also the deliverance “from the clutches of the Evil One.”[173]  In this simple phrase, Jesus acknowledges the presence of evil and instructs his followers to have a plan to combat it; primarily to ask The Father for his help in that struggle.  It indicates the same to us, to acknowledge the existence of these forces and understand that we must also have a plan and ask for help.

This is a significant statement from Jesus.  We cannot now “claim that we are ignorant” of evil in the world.[174]  Jesus has stated that it exists.  In our modern history, there are many examples of the unwillingness to acknowledge evil’s existence. Those who originally served Hitler did not recognize the evil in him.  His evil “grew invisible” because they were a part of it.[175]  As it became more obvious, it was a reality that was difficult and painful to face.  But it was reality without doubt.

Evil has Old Testament roots.  In Job, Satan emerged as a “clearly defined figure.”[176]  He is described as the “leader of forces of evil who delight in causing troubles for humans and leading them astray.”[177]  With this Old Testament foundation and these words of Jesus to his disciples, evil is a factor in Christian life that cannot be ignored if of one is choosing to be a Christian.

Jesus calls on us to use this passage as a “prayer of defense” in our daily lives.[178] We are powerless against Satan and the forces of evil without The Father’s help.  Just as the early parts of the passage taught us acknowledge The Father as the creator and most high power in the universe and depend on Him for our nutritional needs, this portion teaches to ask and depend on him equally for the safety of spiritual needs.  God expects us to do this and knows in advance that we will.  He encourages us to ask for help and promises that “he who seeks finds.”  (Matthew 6:8)

In some ways, this past petition “summarizes the whole prayer” and completes the path it provides to successful Christian living.[179]  Martin Luther wrote that we should live in an approach to evil that puts it on “personal terms.”[180]

“We pray in this petition, in summary, that our Heavenly Father in Heaven would rescue us from every evil of body and soul, possession and reputation, and finally, when our last hour comes, give us a blessed end, and graciously take us from this valley of sorrow to Himself in Heaven.”[181]


Today, there are many evils.  To deny their existence is to ignore the words of Jesus.  We can seek to be delivered from its impact on our lives and to help combat it in the world.  To become delivered from evil may not mean a complete avoidance of these now obvious factors in our lives.  “Such deliverance may not come as relief.”[182] We may not avoid them but we can be delivered from them. Acknowledging the presence of such evils is the first step to that deliverance.

Evil is not just external.  Some, if not evil in the world “originates in the human heart.”[183]

It could be the heart of the believer of one of another.  The human heart is “so susceptible and weak before the temptations of the devil” that it may be Satan’s favorite target.  The believer is just as vulnerable to the evil of their own heart as they are to the evil of others.  Regardless of the source, Jesus indicated here that we should ask for and expect the protection of The Father from this evil as a normal part of our daily prayer and life routine.

To some this last phrase in the words of Jesus that day is “disturbing anticlimax.”[184]  After acknowledging the power and glory of God earlier in the passage, here at the end we pray to avoid testing in our daily lives because “we would fail it.”[185]  The passage seems to sum up where have been, where we are and where we can go in life. We have been created by a hallowed God who deserves our worship.  Every day He will supply our daily bread if we ask him for it.  And, He will deliver us from evil if we ask for that as well.

He will deliver us in spite of ourselves. We seek to live in a way where God does not lead us into temptation BUT delivers us from evil.  If he does not lead us there, we often go on our own. Even in our weakness, walking into temptation and evil on our own, He will deliver us from evil if we ask. We need only to ask for that deliverance and protection.

This phrase concludes the petition portion of The Lord’s Prayer, our guide for living.  The final phrase serves as the benediction or ending of the passage and is the next focus.

Chapter Summary

Jesus began this passage by honoring The Father by declaring His holiness and ended it with a plea for protection. Within the passage he taught his followers to ask for the daily needs for human life and then includes the protection from evil as part of that everyday routine. It is powerful and significant that Jesus put all of these things together in this lesson.  Evil is presented here as common as bread.  This is not the approach of the normal contemporary believer to daily life.  Just as believers are offered basic necessities they are offered protection from the evil of the world.  Jesus taught that both of these things would be common occurrences in their pursuit of a Christian walk.


















“For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever.”


Key Word Analysis

ὅτι ` σοῦ  ἐστιν  ἡ βασιλεία,  καὶ  ἡ δύναμις,  καὶ  ἡ δόξα,  εἰς  τοῦς  αἰῶνας  ἀμήν

This begins the last chapter of verse and word discussion.  In this last phrase, Jesus gives the reason that the Father can and will answer the prayers and honor the life of the believer.  In the words preceding these, the needs or wants of the believer are given.  There is an implied authority in word’s receiver.  The Father can and will answer or complete these requests.  But why he would do so is implied previous to this phrase.

Here the total idea of the prayer or life-guide is made complete.  While this last phrase is not found in all versions of this passage, it is included here because the editors of The Updated New American Standard Bible chose to include them.  The theological discussion around its inclusion is not the focus of this work.  In this version, this phrase completes the authority and the content of the passage.  Because the Father is who he is, the requests of the believer will be answered.

For/ὅτι is the conjunction tying it all together.  Used to express that, for or because, it ties the authority of the receiver to the words of the requester.[186]  The believer is to ask for or live the objectives of the passage because all of the kingdom, earthly or heavenly, is under the authority of the Father, the recipient of the prayer.  The first verses of the passage are possible because of this verse.  There are many similar uses of this conjunction in the New Testament.

“Because they were no more.”  Matthew 2”18

“because they were distressed.”  Matthew 9:36

“he feared the crowd, because they regarded John as a prophet.”  Matthew 14:5

“because he had married her.”  Mark 6:17

“because they have remained with me”, Mark 8:2

“because they knew him to be Christ”, Luke 4:41

“because he was travelling toward Jerusalem.”  Luke 9:53

“because I said to you”, John 1:50

“because he did need anyone to testify”,  John 2:25

Yours/ σοῦ gives the Father possession of the remainder of the passage.  Is/ἐστιν shows that possession to be in the present tense, existing today.  This is significant because it indicates that Jesus was not giving a history lesson or speaking toward the future kingdom, but speaking of the kingdom of today . Is/ἐστιν also indicates first person singular.[187]  The Father is a singular person.  The language is specific.  It describes the authority of the Father even in the word tense chosen by Jesus.

Kingdom/ βασιλεία indicates not only the span of authority of the Father, but also his royalty.  This word choice indicates kingship, royal power or royal rule.[188] It is not a political or government territory but one that is royal, led by a King.  This statement of royalty is different than the political or government leader Jews of that day were looking for in the Messiah.  One wonders if the disciples heard that difference.  This word was most commonly used to refer to a royal kingdom not of Earth but of Heaven.  Matthew documented Jesus’ use of this word many times, in nineteen of his twenty eight chapters.

“Repent, for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand.”  Matthew 3:2

“Repent, for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand.”  Matthew 4:17

“Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven.”  Matthew 5:3

“Your kingdom come”, Matthew 6:10

“will enter the kingdom”, Matthew 7:21

“in the kingdom of Heaven”, Matthew 8:12

“the gospel of the kingdom”, Matthew 9:35

“The kingdom of Heaven is at hand.”  Matthew 10:7

“the one who is least in the kingdom”, Matthew 11:11

“Any kingdom”, Matthew 12:25

“the mysteries of the kingdom”, Matthew 13:11

“the keys of the kingdom”, Matthew 16:19

“Who is the greatest in the kingdom?”  Matthew 18:1

“for the sake of the kingdom”, Matthew 19:12

“The kingdom of Heaven is like the landowner”, Mathew 20:1

“will get in the kingdom”, Matthew 21:31

“The kingdom of Heaven may be compared”, Matthew 22:2

“because you shut off the kingdom of Heaven”, Matthew 23:13

“kingdom against kingdom”, Matthew 24:7

Power/ δύναμις is also not a political or worldly word choice, but one that means strength or power related to supernatural miracles, power or mighty works.[189]  It is more commonly translated as miracles in modern Bibles. This is not normal, human power but the power only a god or God the Father can possess.

“in Your name perform many miracles.”  Matthew 7:22

“in which most of his miracles were done.”  Matthew 11:20

“For if the miracles had occurred in Tyre”, Mathew 11:21.

“And He could do no miracle there”, Mark 6:5.

“these miraculous powers are at work in him.”  Mark 6:14

“after it has come with power.”  Mark 9:1

“who will perform such a miracle in My name”, Mark 9:39

“and the powers that are in the heavens will be shaken.”  Mark 13:25

“in the spirit and power of Elijah”, Luke 1:17

“in the power of the Spirit”, Luke 4:14

“but you will receive power”, Acts 1:8.

Glory/ δόξα completes the trio of authority given to the Father by Jesus.  He has the heavenly kingdom and the miraculous power that deserves the honor, praise and worship here given as glory by this word choice.

“Glory to God in the highest.”  Luke 2:14

“And the glory of your people Israel.”  Luke 2:32

“who returned to give glory to God”, Luke 17:18

“I did not receive glory from men.”  John 5:41

“The glory which you have given me”, John 17:22

“he did not give God the glory”, Acts 12:23

“but glory and honor and peace to everyone who does good”, Romans 2:10

Glory/ δόξα also communicate the majesty or exalted state of God.  This is the more common translation of this Hebrew word but as just illustrated, not the only translation. As majesty, it is translated in the New Testament one hundred and fifty five times.  As honor or praise, it is used thirteen times.[190]

“all the kingdoms of the world and their glory.”  Matthew 4:8

“Solomon in all his glory”, Matthew 6:26

“the Son of Man will sit on his glorious throne”, Matthew 19:28

“on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory.”  Matthew 24:30

“But when the Son of Man comes in His glory”, Matthew 25:31

“one on Your right and one on Your left, in Your glory.”  Mark 10:37

“coming in clouds with great power and glory.”  Mark 13:26

“I will give You all this domain and its glory.”  Luke 4:6

“Solomon in all his goory”, Luke 12:27

“The Son of May coming in a cloud with power and great glory.”  Luke 21:27

“you will see the glory of God?”  John 11:40

“he saw His glory, and he spoke of Him.”  John 12:41

“The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham”, Acts 7:2

“because of the brightness of that light”, Acts 22:11

“the truth of God abounded to his glory”, Romans 3:7

“For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.”  Romans 3:23

“Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father”, Romans 6:4

The last word of the passage content prior to Amen is an adjective giving its time frame.  Forever/ αἰῶνας  indicates ever, evermore, end of the age and eternal.  In some cases it also indicates never, the opposite of the traditional meaning for this passage.  Because of that difference, careful translation by verse is necessary.  In this passage it indicates evermore or eternal.  This same meaning is present in many other New Testament passages.

“the harvest is the end of the age”, Matthew 13:39

“so it will be at the end of the age the angels will come forth”, Matthew 13:49

“He will reign over the house of Jacob forever.”  Luke 1:33

“To Abraham and his descendants forever.”  Luke 1:55

“he will live forever”, John 6:51

“the son does remain forever.”  John 8:35

“who is blessed forever.”  Romans 1:25

“who is overall, God blessed forever.”  Romans 9:5

“His righteousness endures forever.”  2 Corinthians 9:9

“He who is blessed forever”, 2 Corinthians 11:31

“to whom be the glory forevermore.” Galatians 1:5

This last phrase gives the why of the passage.  God the Father will honor these prayers or ways of life because He is the kingdom, the power and the glory forever, until the end of all the ages, until the end of the universe as know it.  The final phrase of the passage gives the reason for living the passage.  The earthly life should be lived in the perspective that God the Father controls all in Heaven and on Earth, for now and for eternity. The word choices of Jesus have been examined.  How the disciples would have accepted those words through the perspective of their lives up to this point is our next focus.



Historical Theology Analysis

Yours attached the words that followed with the receiver of the prayer or the objective of the life objectives identified by the passage.  It would have been familiar to the disciples much as it is to us today.  It was used in almost every book of the Old Testament.

“you shall surely die, you an all who are yours.”  Genesis 20:7

“The honor is yours”, Exodus 8:9

“Every grain of offering of yours”, Leviticus 2:13

“This shall be yours”, Numbers 18:9

“who can do such works and mighty acts as yours?”  Deuteronomy 11:24

“Our life for yours”, Joshua 2:14

“the honor shall not be yours”, Judges 4:9

The kingdom was equally familiar and common in the Old Testament, but not introduced until the book of Numbers.  It did not appear in Genesis, Exodus or Leviticus.  The kingdom concept began in the day of Moses and did not apply originally to The Kingdom of God but to earthly kingdoms.  It evolved from earthly kingdoms to the kingdom of Israel to the Kingdom of God.

“the kingdom of Og”, Numbers 32:33

“the kingdom of Og”, Deuteronomy 3:4

“the kingdom of Og”, Deuteronomy 3:13
“the kingdom of Og”, Joshua 13:12

“the kingdom of Shinon king of the Amorites”, Joshua 13:21

“the kingdom over Israel”, 1 Samuel 14:47

“the kingdom of Israel”, 1Samuel 15:28

“now what more can he have but the kingdom?”  1 Samuel 18:8

“the kingdom of Israel will be established in your hand.”  1 Samuel 24:20

“to transfer the kingdom from the house of Saul”, 2 Samuel 3:10

While the contemporary language of Jesus would have indicated a royal kingdom, the perspective of the disciples may have been more earthly or political.  They may have heard these words in the theme of earthly or political leadership rather than the eternal, royal direction Jesus was leading them. Neither the actions or words of Jesus on Earth ever indicated an Earthly kingdom.  John recognized him as the Heavenly Messiah. The baptism of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry laid a spiritual foundation.  He never positioned himself as an earthly political leader.  His focus was always heavenly focused.

The power, while indicating miraculous power in New Testament Israel indicates political, military or miraculous power in Old Testament references.  Like kingdom it is possible that the disciples heard this part of the passage in a different context than Jesus may have intended.

“the power of the Egyptians”, Exodus 3:8

“let the power of the Lord”, Numbers 14:17

“the power of the house of Joseph”, Judges 1:35

“the power of Midian prevailed against Israel.”  Judges 6:2

“deliver us from the power of our enemies”, 1 Samuel 10:18

“the power and the glory and the victory”, 1 Chronicles 29:11

“from the power of the sword”, Job 5:20

“into the power of their transgression.”  Job 8:4

“the power of God”, Job 27:11

“the power of Sheol”, Psalms 49:15

The glory had a different Torah perspective than the previous two key words.  It was used almost exclusively in the Old Testament in reference to God the Father or the Lord.

“you will see the glory of the Lord”, Exodus 16:7

“behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.”  Exodus 16:10

“that the glory of the Lord may appear to you.”  Leviticus 9:6

“the glory of the Lord appeared”, Numbers 14:10

“all the earth will be filed with the glory of the Lord.”  Numbers 16:19

“The glory has departed from Israel”, 1 Samuel 4:21

“for the glory of the Lord filled the house of the Lord.”  1 Kings 8:11

“A scribe to the Lord the glory due his name”, 1 Chronicles 16:29

“the glory of the God”,  Psalms 19:1

“Sing the glory of his name.”  Psalms 66:2

“It is the glory of God to conceal a matter”, Proverbs 25:2

“the glory of the sons of Israel”, Isaiah 17:3

The historical theology analysis reveals that the disciples understanding of the kingdom, the power and the glory may have been different than the contemporary meaning Jesus was using in this setting.  It is not known how they perceived these words since there is no indication of either leaning in their understanding given in scripture.  This analysis shows the difficulty of communication in any setting.  We might wish to assume that the disciples understood the words of Jesus precisely but that may not have been the case.  There is no clear support for how the disciples received or interpreted this part of the teaching that day. The focus of Jesus was heavenly.  It is unclear whether the disciples received this as heavenly or earthly.

Forever did have the same meaning in most Old Testament writings as it would have had in the contemporary context of that day.  After examining the word analysis and historical context of the passage, the contemporary analysis is the next step.

Contemporary Theology Analysis

The modern application of   “For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever” is the real challenge of the passage.  This statement serves as the why of the instruction of Jesus on that day.  We ask the Father for all these things knowing that He owns the entire kingdom, has all the power and will ultimately have the entire world’s glory. In prayer and in life, access that kingdom, power and glory is the key to the highest potential Christian life.

The kingdom is both today on the Earth and tomorrow in Heaven. Our goal is not just to get to Heaven eventually, but to live on Earth today in a way pleasing to Him.  The two places are “two interlocking arenas of God’s good world.”[191]  Heaven is “God’s space” and Earth is “our space”.[192]  The disciples were eager for Jesus to bring his kingdom and his rule to Earth, to take over the government and society and rule the planet.  It has been prophesied by many Old Testament prophets.  But that was not the focus of Jesus that day for his disciples or for us today.

Jesus sought to teach his listeners to think of Heaven and Earth as both his kingdom.  He saw both places as the everyday home of God. He has experienced that himself by his personal presence in both places.  He sought to expand their thinking to join the two as he would desire we would do today.  Remember that Jesus did not teach them the prayer or cover the material in this passage until they asked him to do so.  They asked him how to pray, how to live.  As they were ready to hear this outline, he then shared it with them.  He taught that it was his task and “our task to teach the world” to pray and live this way.[193]  The disciples saw his example in how he prayed and lived his life.  They wanted to know the secret of his methods.

In this passage he brought it all together.  Ask for and seek these things as they are all part of God’s kingdom, both in Heaven and here on Earth.  He also stated that God the Father is the King of all things, as he owns the kingdom.  Jesus echoed the Psalms and the prophets.  “The Earth is the Lord’s and all it contains.”  (Psalms 24:1) We must live in an attitude toward Him that he is King to fulfil the passage.  To many “the fundamental, underlying meaning of “Thine is the kingdom” is that God is King.”[194]  He is King of Heaven as well as King of “this fallen, rebellious world.”[195]  Jesus sought to create a personal link between God and man by his earthly life and teaching to the disciples.  At the same time. The Father is the King of all things.  His robe states “KINGS OF KINGS AND LORDS.” (Revelation 19:16)  Those who have personal relationships with the Governor, the President, the Prime Minister, the Queen or the King have great power and influence in the world, but also keep that relationship in the proper perspective.  Jesus seeks to help each of us have this kingly, royal relationship but also understand that God is King and deserves our worship and respect while at the same time giving us the access to the power and influence necessary to accomplish great things.

A king also has The Power.  Jesus states the power of the Father in the passage.  He also gives his listeners access to that power.

“But as many as received him, he gave them power to be made the sons of God, to them that believe in his name.”  John 1:12


We have access to that power if we receive his messenger, Jesus. Our lives, though our actions and prayers, must declare the power of God and at the same time claim it through our reception of Jesus.  By declaring His power in our lives and actions, we add that power to lives through his Son.  That power is for today and for the future.  While Jesus taught the power of God in his daily life, his short days on the Earth were also always focused on the future.

“Blessed by the God and Father through our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in Heaven for you, how are protected by the power of God” I Peter 1:3-5


God’s power is ours if we claim it.  We claim it in our salvation experience, in our daily lives and in our focus toward the future.  We must not just be future focused.  Clearly Jesus lived the “give us this day” spirit of the prayer.  He stopped along the way to help and experience the lives of others.  We must do the same.  At the same time, he was also clearly future focused at times, knowing the life that was to come.  His Father owns the Kingdom and has the Power to bring it all together to those who claim it, live it and look forward to it in their future.

The Glory is the final descriptor of God’s three possessions most relevant to this passage.  He owns The Kingdom and The Power and will receive The Glory from the world around Him.  Acknowledging the glory of the Father in our prayers and lives should be our daily goal. Just as “no prayer is complete without a doxology”, no Christian life is complete without acknowledging God in His glory daily.[196]  Just as this prayer begins and ends with God, our lives should follow that same pattern.

“Our purpose in life is to live for God’s glory” and give him that glory in all we do.[197] It is “focused, prayer-filled lifestyle, outlined in the Lord’s Prayer” that pleases him the most.[198]  “We end the prayer by reminding ourselves that we are in the presence of the divine glory; and that means that we must live in the reverence which never forgets that we are living within the splendor of the glory of God.”[199]

Forever ends the passage, leading us to a “never-ending symphony of praise” with our daily lives.[200]  This was a traditional prayer ending for that day, sometimes translated as for-the-ages.  It speaks to the eternal perspective we should have, in addition to give us this day our daily bread.  God lives in today and tomorrow.  Our perspective should be the same.


Chapter Summary

Just as our key passage begins with an acknowledgment of the holiness of God and ends with an acknowledgment of his kingdom, power and glory, it is with this pattern we should live our daily, weekly and yearly lives.  This simple guideline for life is simple to understand and aspire to.  Some may think the total journey too difficult or even impossible.  While using this passage as our guide for Christian living, beginning and ending every day in this format seems attainable. To start and end each day using these ideals from the words of Jesus is to walk in his way.















Key Word Analysis


To the reader of this work up to this point, a separate chapter for the word Amen may seem a bit out of place.  The previous chapters have dealt with multiple words or phrases, examining them in depth.  This single word may not seem worthy of the same attention.

While this may be one of the most common words in the modern church, Amen was not used that often in the days of Jesus or in the Old Testament.  Its use at the end of this passage is significant and purposeful.  It is not just a word to close the passage.  It is used to validate all that preceded it.  It is used only forty seven times in the entire Bible.[201]  Given its common use today, that low number indicates a word of much deeper significance in biblical times.

Amen/ ἀμήν in verbal use was spoken at both the beginning and the end of a discourse.[202]  At the end of a phrase, it indicated that the preceding words were of importance or of significant truth. It was most commonly used at the beginning of a phrase. When used at the end, it indicated that something highly significant had been declared.  The disciples would have been familiar with the word but because of its less than common use, it would have indicated that the words just spoken were very significant.  When used at the beginning of a phrase, it indicates that words of importance are to follow.

Jesus used the word fifty times in the New Testament at the beginning of a phrase. It is only used once by Jesus, at the end of this passage.  It is used only here at the end of the prayer’s doxology.  Since the doxology of the prayer is not recorded in the later New Testament version, the word’s use here may be suspect by some scholars.  For this work, we are accepting the prayer’s version in the NASB as the authority, so the analysis of this word here at the end of this passage is included.

It was translated as in faith, surely, truly, may it be fulfilled or it is done.  It was sometimes repeated to show even more emphasis on the words to come.

                        “For truly I say to you”, Matthew 5:18

“Truly I say to you”, Matthew 5:26

“Truly I say to you”, Mark 3:28

“Truly I say to you”, Mark 14:30

“Truly I say to you”, Luke 4:24

“truly I say to you”, Luke 12:37

“Truly, truly I say to you”, John 1:51

“Truly, truly I say to you”, John 13:21

“For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever.  Amen”,                                        Matthew 6:13


The disciples would have seen the words of Jesus as even more significant with the addition of Amen at the end. They would also have heard the word based on their perspective from the Old Testament uses studied in their culture and upbringing.


Historical Theology Analysis

Of the biblical uses of this word, about half are in the Old Testament and half in the New Testament.  It was used most commonly at the end of a phrase in the Old Testament.  This is in contrast to its use at the beginning of phrases in the New Testament.  In both cases, it indicates the significance of the words that follow or precede it.

God’s leaders used it often to emphasize significance of specific teachings.  Moses used it twelve times in one setting.  (Deuteronomy 27:15-26)  There are other examples of Old Testament uses by significant leaders.

“And the woman shall say Amen.  Amen.”  Numbers 5:22

“And all the people shall answer and say, Amen.”  Deuteronomy 27:15

“And the people shall say Amen.”  Deuteronomy 27:16

“And all the assembly said “Amen!””, Nehemiah 5:13

“And all the people answered “Amen, Amen!””, Nehemiah 8:6

“And may the whole earth be filled with His glory.  Amen and Amen.”                                           Psalms 72:19

“Blessed be the Lord forever!  Amen and Amen.”  Psalm 89:52

“Then I said, “Amen, O Lord.””  Jeremiah 11:5

“Amen!  May the Lord do so”, Jeremiah 28:6

The disciples would have been familiar with Amen but would have also understood it as an uncommon ending to important teachings.  The last word of Jesus in this setting would have given even more significance to what he has just shared.

Contemporary Theology Analysis and Summary

The last word of the passage gives a clear teaching in our journey of understanding both the prayer and life implications of the words of Jesus on that day.  It ends with a unique word in this application.

Despite our daily use of Amen it is only used once in the Bible at the end of a prayer, this prayer.  It gives a completely unique ending to a completely unique passage.  The total impact of this passage is “more than the sum of its parts.”[203] Although toward the beginning of the ministry of Jesus, it foretold of things to come. It is a “collect passage.”[204]

It is a passage that collects all the thoughts and needs of those that came before it and summarizes them all in one place.  In this case, it was the beginning of the summary of the ministry of Jesus, telling the disciples both the collection of teachings from their culture and upbringing that were useful in their walk with The Father and the teachings of Jesus that were to come.

In the end, it was concluded with the word available that would give those words the highest level of credibility and significance.  This last word also gives an ending of “the voice of a confident faith.”[205]  It is so.  If we live and pray the contents of the passage with confidence, with faith, it will be so.  Faith teaches that it is already so, if we believe.

It is or mission to understand, live and pray, then claim the passage to make it so in our lives.


















Conclusion and Summary of Application to Christian Life

This summary of the writing presented so far is intended to review and remind of the key points of the previous chapters, not to introduce any new material.  The most important reference points may be found in the previous chapter on each portion of the passage.

In Matthew 6:9-13, the passage commonly known as The Lord’s Prayer, perhaps one of the best known of all biblical passages, Jesus told his disciples how to pray to their heavenly Father.  This work has presented the idea of applying this passage not just to prayer, but for the challenge of successfully living daily as a Christian.  The Lord’s Prayer is not just about prayer, but also a “summary of Jesus’ priorities” for Christian living.[206] The prayer of Jesus is intended to show “the terms of our existence as we stand under God” as well as show how to express ourselves to our heavenly Father.[207]  It is a guide for communicating to God through our lives and actions, not just our words just as Jesus did in his earthly life.

Overall, Jesus presented this teaching using very common language of that day.[208]  He spoke and taught to the common people, not to the religious leaders or their followers.   His goal was clear communication to the masses.  While the words of Jesus concerning prayer in particular were common, other words in the New Testament regarding this subject were not so common. Some were completely unique to this subject. Paul’s instruction to “pray without ceasing” in 1 Thessalonians 5:7 used language only found in that one passage.[209]  Paul taught to constantly pray in the manner Jesus taught.  This would also be defined as living the Christian life, spending every day, all day, in the behavior Jesus taught in The Prayer.

While Jesus used common language on this day, he chose his words very carefully, perhaps to give this public lesson so early in his ministry more emphasis. The word for hallowed chosen by Jesus was used for only this purpose and in this way.  It is only recorded in Mathew and in Luke in The Prayer passages.  His word for daily in our daily bread was also only used in these passages, as well as the phrase forgive us our debts.  Your will be done was only used by Jesus twice, in The Prayer and in the Garden of Gethsemane, just before the Cross.  These phrases of the passage have special meaning in this context and Jesus used special words to emphasize their importance.

Jesus chose one of his first public lessons as the setting for this subject.  By his timing, he was setting this as a priority for the believer.  Just as prayer was an ever present behavior in his earthly life, he wished his believers to live in this same lifestyle.

Jesus wished everyone to be part of his Father’s community.  Using common language in a public setting, he taught that The Father was the protector of all who would receive him.[210]  This was not designed for an elite few but for all.  This Father was has the same characteristics as a biological father, with unearthly characteristics as well.  From His home on high, He seeks to watch over us just an earthly father would do for his children.

But this Father is holy or hallowed.  The language of this description is unique, used only in the two prayer lessons of Jesus in the New Testament.[211]  Just as this Father is unique, the language of the passage is unique.  A simple way implied by the passage to proclaim and worship the holiness of The Father is by merely living out the passage.[212]  He seeks to be completely Our Father, both in Heaven and on Earth.  Our part of that relationship is to live out behaviors that acknowledge His holiness.

And this Father has a will or plan of how things should be in the lives of his children, just like most earthly fathers.  His primary will is what he wants us to accomplish on Earth.[213]  This is contrast to the contemporary idea held by many that the will of God is what He wants to accomplish. The language used by Jesus does not lead to that conclusion.  The walk of the believer is to seek that thy will be done in our actions, not in the actions of God.  This is a subtle but significant difference that Jesus taught that day.  We live the will of God by our actions, seeking that what He desires may be the result of our actions.  Just as David delighted in fulfilling the will of The Father, we should do the same.[214]  Active Christian living is about what we do as much as about what He does for us after granting us our salvation which opens our relationship with him.  Our actions do not earn our salvation or relationship with him but they prove it exists!  This part of the passage is more of a proclamation than a prayer.

God’s purpose for us includes what he would have us accomplish on Earth because his perspective includes them both.[215] They are equally real and tangible places.  In this teaching, Jesus publicly connected the two in his guide for prayer and living.  The believer should also keep both in mind daily in the pursuit of a Godly life.

Just as Earth and Heaven are real places, the need of believers for daily, earthly nutrition is also tangible.  Jesus spoke to it directly.  We are to rely on The Father for human nutrition just as rely on him for eternal things.  All needs are within his perspective and authority.  We have only to ask and believe.  And we are to ask and rely on Him daily. This is the one unique place in the New Testament that Jesus used this form of the word daily. He meant this as completely unique direction to rely on Him for everything, spiritual and physically, and to renew those needs daily.  Jesus did not plan for his disciples weekly or monthly. There is no real evidence He gave them any advance plan at all other than predicting his future events.  His teaching here in these words and in his life is to live each day and rely each day on The Father.  He will plan our future weeks, months and years!

We are also to live a forgiving life as modeled in the actions and words of Jesus.  His last act on Earth was to forgive the man nearest him on the cross.  “Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise.”  (Luke 23:43)  We are to forgive others if God is to forgive us in our daily lives.  One may rearrange the passage to be “as we also have for give our debtors”, “forgive us our debts.”  (Matthew 6:12)  Jesus spoke his expectation that we forgive others around us as a condition of God’s continue forgiveness in our daily lives.  This is not salvation forgiveness but that of daily Christian living.  We are to intentionally forgive, or push away the actions of others that are damaging to us, just as Jesus did for us on the cross.[216]  Just as His forgiveness of our sins is dependent on our intentional acceptance of that forgiveness in salvation, our successful daily Christian walk is dependent on our forgiveness of those around us.

This is one future oriented portion of The Prayer in this guide for living supplied by Jesus.  We are to ask and expect that The Father will protect us from being led into temptation and will deliver us from the evil of the world that impacts us. We ask Him to look ahead for us and help us avoid future sins as well as to deliver us from the evil of the world around us.  What a promise! This may be the strongest earthly promise of the entire passage.  If we ask, He will protect us from both the temptations of the world and it’s evil.  He walks with us, helps us on the road and provides the road ahead.  He give us an early journey very similar to the one of His Son, clearly mapped out before our lives even begin.

And lastly, we are to finish the prayer, finish our early lives just as we began, by declaring the Glory of God.  From “Our Father who is in Heaven”,  to  “For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever.”  (Matthew 6:9, Mathew 6:13)  Jesus began his early life as a helpless baby and ended it as a helpless adult, in both times impacted by his surroundings but not controlled by them.  The helpless baby born in a cave became the King of Kings, the most significant human to every walk the planet.  The helpless human, murdered by those around him, rose from the dead victorious over all the Earth.

The journey of this work ends where it began by declaring that the biblical passage known as The Lord’s Prayer is not only a guide to prayer for earthly believers by Jesus but also a guide for successful Christian living in our time here.  Jesus both spoke the words and lived them.  He lived every word of the prayer, providing a living, breathing example of how to do it. We only have to speak and live the words to the best of our ability to make the most of the earthly life He has given us. He has provided the way, the truth and life.  We have only to follow.












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[1] Norman L. Geisler and William C. Roach, Defending Inerrancy: Affirming the Accuracy of Scripture for a New Generation, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 2011), 133.

[2] Mark Driscoll, “Pray Like Jesus”, Mars Hill Website,, accessed 8/09/2014.

[3] Hillerbrand, Hans J., A New History of Christianity, (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2012), 124.

[4]David E. Lanier, “The Lord’s Prayer:  Mathew 6:9-13, A Thematic and Semantic Structural Analysis, Criswell Theological Review, 6.1, 1992, 61.

[5]Ronald Goetz, “Jesus’ Prayer”, The Living Pulpit, July-September 193, 45.

[6] Richard Wendel, “The Interpretations of the Lord’s Prayer, Q11:2b-4, in the Formative Stratum of Q, According to the Literary and Cultural Perspectives Afforded by the Affixed Aphorisms, Q11:9-10, 11-13”, Ph.D. Dissertation, Loyola University, Chicago, IL, 2010, 1.

[7]Barbara Frankel, “The Lord’s Prayer:  An Exegesis of MT 6:9-13”, Master Thesis, College of Saint Benedict and St. John’s University, 1986, 2.

[8]Moises Silva, Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation, (Grand Rapids, MI:  Zondervan Publishing, 1996), 245.

[9]New American Standard Bible, The MacArthur Study Bible, (Nashville, TN:  Thomas Nelson, 2006).  All further citations will use this translation unless otherwise noted.

[10]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (New York, NY:  Concordia House Publishing, 2005),  181.

[11]Mark Driscoll, “Pray Like Jesus”, Mars Hill Website,, accessed 8/09/2014.

[12]Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology, Second Edition, (Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Press, 1998), 27.

[13] Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology, Second Edition, (Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Press, 1998), 115.

[14]F.F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments, (New York, NY:  Revell, 1963), 95.

[15] Fulliam, 2

[16]New American Standard Bible, The MacArthur Study Bible, ( Nashville, TN:  Thomas Nelson, 2006).

[17] TImms 15

[18]Martin Lloyd-Jones, “Jesus on Prayer” O Christian Website,, accessed 8/02/2014.

[19]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (New York, NY:  Concordia House Publishing, 2005), 174.

[20]James Arne Nestingen, “The Lord’s Prayer in Luther’s Catechism”, Word and World, Vol. 22, Number 1, Winter 2002, 40.

[21]Hughson T. Ong, “Has the True Meaning and Purpose of the Lord’s Prayer Been Lost?  A Sociolisguistic Study of the Lord’s Prayer in Dialogue with Wilson-Kastner and Crossa”, MacMaster Journal of Theology and Ministry, Vol. 14, 2012-2013, 104.

[22]Ronald Goetz, “Jesus’ Prayer”, The Living Pulpit, July-September 193, 45.

[23]John Mark Hicks, “The Theology of the Lord’s Prayer”, Faithsite Website,, accessed 6/20/2014.

[24]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 545.

[25] Ibid, 11.

[26]William Sanford Lasor, David Allan Hubbard, Frederic William Bush, Old Testament Survey, The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testamant, (Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996) , 277.

[27]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 470.

[28] Ibid 529.

[29] New American Standard Bible, The MacArthur Study Bible, ( Nashville, TN:  Thomas Nelson, 2006). See Matthew 4:25, 8:1, 13:2, 14:14, 15:33, 19:2, 20:29, 26:47.

[30]Morris Weigelt, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Downers Grove, IL: Beacon Hill Press, 2006), 22.

[31] C.G Montefiore and H. Loewe, A Rabbinic Anthology, (New York, NY:  Cambridge University Press, 1974),  Ch. 3.

[32]William Sanford Lasor, David Allan Hubbard and Fredrick William Bush, Old Testament Survey, (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996), 126.

[33]N.T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God, (Minneapolis, MN:  Fortress Press, 1996), 101.

[34] Ibid.

[35]Larry W. Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ:  Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, (Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003), 134.

[36]Morris, Weigelt, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Downers Grove, IL: Beacon Hill Press, 32006), 23.

[37]William H. Willimon, Lord Teach Us:  The Lord’s Prayer and the Christian Life, (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 1996), 17.

[38]Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 420.

[39] Ken Hemphill, The Prayer of Jesus, (Nashville, TN:  Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2001),  28.

[40]Everett L. Fullam, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (New York, NY:  Ballantine Books, 1980), 15.


[42]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 494.

[43]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986), 19.

[44] Ibid.

[45]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 433.

[46]Ibid, 329.

[47]Ibid, 465.

[48]Mark Driscoll, “Pray Like Jesus”, Mars Hill Website,,  3.

[49]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 494.

[50] F. Brown, S. Driver, C Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, (Peabody, MA:  Henfdrickson Publishers, 2014), 1.

[51] Ibid, 1029.

[52] Ibid.

[53]Fredric William Farrar, The Lord’s Prayer:  Sermons Preached in Westminster Abbey, (London, England:   Isbister and Company Limited, 1895), 39.

[54]William H. Willinon and Stanley Hauerwas, Lord, Teach Us:  The Lord’s Prayer and the Christian Life, (Nashville, TN:  1996), 25.

[55]Mark Driscoll, “Pray Like Jesus”, Mars Hill Website,, 3.

[56]Everett L. Fullam, Livng the Lord’s Prayer, (New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1980), 27.  See Isaiah 64:8, Isaiah 63:16, Deuteronomy 32:6, I Chronicles 29:10, Malachi 2:10, Hosea 1:10.

[57] Ibid.

[58]New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 436.

[59]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 6.



[62]David Timms, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House Publishers, 2008), 83.

[63]WA Liebenberg, What Does It Really Mean to Walk in Your Rabbi’s Footsteps?, Amazon Digital Publishing, 2014.

[64]David Timms, Livng the Lord’s Prayer, (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House Publishers, 2008), 83.

[65]Ferdinand Schureman Schenck, The Ten Commandments and the Lord’s Prayer:  A Sociological Survey, (New York, NY:  Funk and Wagnall’s Publishing, 1902), 160.

[66]David Timms, Livng the Lord’s Prayer, (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House Publishers, 2008), 83.

[67]Barbara Frankel, “The Lord’s Prayer:  An Exegesis of MT 6:9-13”, Master Thesis, College of Saint Benedict and St. John’s University, 1986. 14

[68]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986), 19.

[69]Frederic William Farrar, The Lord’s Prayer:  Sermons Preached in Westminster Abbey, (London, England: Isbister and Company Limited, 1895), 43.

[70]Ibid, 44.


[72]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 571.

[73] Ibid, 98.

[74]Frederic William Farrar, The Lord’s Prayer:  Sermons Preached in Westminster Abbey, (London, England:  Isbister and Company Limited Press, 1895),  58.

[75] Ibid.

[76]Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 393.

[77] Norman Geisler, Systematic Theology, Vol. 2., (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House, 2004), 461.

[78] Alva J. McClain, The Greatness of the Kingdom, (Winona Lake, IN:  BHM, 1974), 42.

[79] Ferdinand Schureman Schenck, The Ten Comandments and the Lord’s Prayer;  A Sociological Study, (New York, NY:  Fund & Wagnalls Company), 177.

[80] N.T. Wright, “The Kingdom come:  Living the Lord’s Prayer”, Christian Century, March 12, 197, 268.

[81] Norman Geisler, Systematic Theology, Vol. 2., (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House, 2004), 460.

[82] Ronald Goetz, “Jesus’ Prayer”, The Living Pulpit, July – September 1993, 44.

[83] Ferdinand Schureman Schenck, The Ten Comandments and the Lord’s Prayer;  A Sociological Study, (New York, NY:  Fund & Wagnalls Company), 176.

[84] N.T. Wright, “The Kingdom come:  Living the Lord’s Prayer”, Christian Century, March 12, 197, 268.

[85]Frederic William Farrar, The Lord’s Prayer:  Sermons Preached in Westminster Abbey, (London, England:  Isbister and Company Limited Press, 1895),  60.

[86]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism with Expanation, (St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing, 1991),  19.

[87] Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 571.

[88] Ibid, 285.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid, 115.

[91] William H. Willimon and Stanley Hauerwas, Lord, Teach Us:  The Lord’s Prayer and the Christian Life, (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 1996), Epigraph.

[92]David Timms, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House, 2008),  115.

[93] Ibid.

[94] Ibid,117.

[95] Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism with Explanation, (St. Louis, MO:  Condordia Publishing House, 1986) , 20.

[96] Karl Barth, The Christian Live, (Edinburgh, England: T&T Clark Publishing, 1981), 211.

[97] Ibid.

[98] Ibid.

[99]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 571.


[100]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 464.

[101] Ibid.

[102]John H. Walton, The Lost World of Genesis One, (Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 2009), 16.

[103] Telford Work, Ain’t Too Proud to Beg, Living through the Lord’s Prayer, (Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007),  103.

[104] Ibid, 104.

[105] Ibid, 112.

[106] Wilson Wayne Grant, Living The Lord’s Prayer Day By Day, (New York, NY:  iUniverse, Inc., 2008), 51.

[107]Stanley Hauerwas and William H. Willimon, Lord Teach Us, The Lord’s Prayer & the Christian Life, (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 1996),  67.

[108] Sister Wendy Beckett and Archbishop Rowan Williams, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Oxford, England:  Lion Hudson, 2005), 40.

[109]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism with Explanation, (Saint Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing, 2005), 189.

[110]Terry L. Johnson, When Grace Comes Alive, (London, England:  Christian Focus, 2005),  129.

[111]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 1996), 145.


[113] Ibid.

[114] Ibid, 574.

[115] Ibid, 75.

[116] Ibid.

[117] Ibid, 145.

[118] Ibid.

[119] Ibid, 574.

[120] Ferdinand Schureman Schenck, The Ten Commandments and The Lord’s Prayer:  A Sociological Study, (New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1902), 201.

[121] Ibid, 203.

[122] Ibid, 204.

[123] Ibid, 204.

[124] Ibid 207.

[125] Frederic William Farrar, The Lord’s Prayer:  Sermons Preached in Westminster Abbey, (London, England:  Isbister and Company, 1895), 99.

[126] Ibid.

[127] Ibid, 100.

[128] Everett L. Fullam, Living The Lord’s Prayer, (New York, NY:  Ballantine Books, 1980), 72.

[129]Samuel L. Adams, Social and Economic Life in Second Temple Judea, (Louisville, KY:  Westminster John Knox Press, 2014),  108.

[130]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996),  315.

[131]Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, (Nashville, TN:  Holman Publishers, 2010), 363.

[132]Ibid, 269.

[133]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 315.

[134]Samuel L. Adams, Social and Economic Life in Second Temple Judea, (Louisville, KY:  Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 108.

[135]Ibid, 78.

[136]Ibid, 180.

[137]Albert Haase, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Downers Grove, IL:  IVP Books, 2009), 156.

[138] Ibid.

[139] Ibid,157.

[140] Ibid.

[141]Frederic William Farrar, The Lord’s Prayer:  Sermons Preached in Westminster Abbey, (London, England:  Isbister and Company Limited, 1895), 117.

[142] Barbara Frankel,  “The Lord’s Prayer:  An Exegesis of MT 6:9-13”, Master Thesis, College of Saint Benedict and St John’s University, 1986, 20.

[143]Telford Work, Ain’t Too Proud to Beg, (Cambridge, UK:  Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007) 156.

[144]Ibid, 163.

[145]Ibid, 166.

[146]R .Kent Hughes, Abba Father:  The Lord’s Patter for Prayer, (Westchester, IL:  Good News Publishers, 1986), 77.

[147]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996),  680.

[148]Frederick William Danker, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 275.

[149]Ibid, 743.

[150]Christian Classics Ethereal Library,, Accessed 06/12/2016.

[151]R. Kent Hughes, Abba Father:  The Lord’s Pattern for Prayer, (Westchester, IL:  Good  News Publishers, 1986), 79.

[152]Curtis Rose, The Lord’s Prayer:  A Collection of Historical Writings on the Lord’s Prayer, (Castle Rock, CO;  reNew Publications, 2014), 146.

[153] Ibid.

[154]Tyrone D. Gordon, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 2008), 49.


[156]Derek Shannon Melanson, “Karl Barth’s Understanding of The Lord’s Prayer”, Master Thesis, Acadia University, Spring 1998, 80.

[157]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996),  315.

[158] Frederick William Danker, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 289.


[160]Curtis Rose, The Lord’s Prayer:  A Collection of Historical Writings on the Lord’s Prayer, (Castle Rock, CO:  reNew Publications, 201). 126.

[161]Philip Mathias, The Perfect Prayer, (Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 2005), 138.

[162]Rowan Williams and Wendy Becket, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Oxford, England: Lion Hudson plc, 2005), 67.

[163]Curtis Rose, The Lord’s Prayer:  A Collection of Historical Writings on the Lord’s Prayer, (Castle Rock, CO:  reNew Publications, 2014), 138.

[164]Ibid, 139.

[165]Dom Eugene Vandeur, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (London, England:  B. Herder Book Company, 1961), 138.


[167]Norman Geisler, Systematic Theology:  Volume 3, Sin and Salvation, (Minneapolis, MN:  Bethany House, 2004), 105.

[168] Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 1957), 46.

[169]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (Saint Louis, MO:  Condordia Publishing House, 2005),  198.

[170]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996) , 564.

[171]Ibid, 167.

[172]Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 1957),  851

[173]David E. Lanier, “The Lord’s Prayer:  Matthew 6:9-13 A Thematic and Semantic Structural Analysis”, Criswell Theological Review 6.1, 1992,  61.

[174]Robert Ellsberg, “Truth Makes Demands on Us”, The Living Pulpit, October 1992,  17.

[175]Ibid ,16.

[176]Shaye J. D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, (Louisville, KY:  Westminster John Knox Press, 2006), 86.


[178]Dr. John Mark Hicks “The Theology of the Lord’s Prayer”, Theology Website,,       ,  Accessed June 20, 2014.

[179]James Arne Nestigen, “The Lord’s Prayer in Luther’s Catechism”, Word and World, Volume 22, Winter 2002,  47.


[181]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (Saint Louis, MO:  Condordia Publishing House, 2005),  198.

[182]Ibid, 17.

[183]Albert Haase, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 2006), 214.

[184]Telform Work, Ain’t Too Proud to Beg, Living through the Lord’s Prayer, (Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007), 188.


[186] Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 458.

[187]Ibid, 175.

[188]Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL:  The University of Chicago Press, 1979), 168.

[189]Ibid, 326.

[190]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 155.

[191]N.T. Wright, “Thy kingdom come:  Living the Lord’s Prayer”, The Christian Century, March 12, 1997, 268.


[193]Ibid, 269.

[194]R. Kent Hughes, Abba Father: The Lord’s Pattern for Prayer, (Westchester, IL:  Crossway Books, 1986), 102.

[195]Ibid, 103.

[196]Tyrone D. Gordon, Living the Lord’s Prayer, (Nashville, TN:  Abigdon Press, 2008), 75.

[197]Ibid, 77.


[199]Morris A. Weigelt and E. Dee Freeborn, Living the Lord’s Prayer:  The Heart of Spiritual Formation, (Kansas City, MO, 2001), 103.


[201] Theological Website,, Accessed September 12, 1916.

[202] Ibid.

[203]Nicholas Ayo, The Lord’s Prayer, (London, England:  University of Notre Dame Press, 1992), 205.


[205]Tho. Hooker, “A Brief Exposition of the Lord’s Prayer”, Benjamine Allen’s Popes Head Alley Shop Printings, William H. Gross Theological Website,, March 2012, Accessed January 29, 2016.

[206]David E. Lanier, “The Lord’s Prayer:  Mathew 6:9-13, A Thematic and Semantic Structural Analysis, Criswell Theological Review, 6.1, 1992, 61.

[207]Ronald Goetz, “Jesus’ Prayer”, The Living Pulpit, July-September 193, 45.

[208]David E. Lanier, “The Lord’s Prayer:  Mathew 6:9-13, A Thematic and Semantic Structural Analysis, Criswell Theological Review, 6.1, 1992, 61.

[209]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 11.

[210]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 494.

[211]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 6.

[212]Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism, (St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986), 19.

[213]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), 285.

[214] William H. Willimon and Stanley Hauerwas, Lord, Teach Us:  The Lord’s Prayer and the Christian Life, (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 1996), Epigraph.

[215]Stanley Hauerwas and William H. Willimon, Lord Teach Us, The Lord’s Prayer & the Christian Life, (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 1996),  67.

[216]Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, (Nashville, TN:  Holman Publishers, 2010), 363.